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Chapter 13

Notes Review

QuestionAnswer
A drug's name begins with a chemical name that describes what? Its structure and its components.
While a potential drug is under development, the developer gives it a code number or a suggested nonproprietary name. What's another word for nonproprietary? Generic.
Drug classes are group names for drugs that have what? Similar activities or are used for the same type of diseases and disorders.
What are some systems used for classifying drugs? By disorder, body system affected, type of receptor acted on, type of action, etc.
Analgesic drugs create a state in which the pain from a painful medical condition is reduced or not felt. What do you call this state? Analgesia.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are both what? Analgesic and anti-inflammatory.
Anesthetics cause an absence of what? Sensation or pain.
General anesthetics depress what to the level of unconsciousness? The central nervous system.
General anesthetics are usually classified according to what two routes of administration? Inhalation or intravenous (IV).
What type of doctor administers general anesthesia? An anesthesiologist.
Anti-infectives treat disease produced by microorganisms such as what? Bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and parasitic worms.
What are some classes of anti-infectives? Antivirals and antifungals.
What do antivirals do? They inhibit the replication of viruses.
What are antifungals used for? To treat fungal infections.
Oncology is the branch of medicine that deals with what? The study and treatment of cancer.
What does malignancy mean? A life-threatening, cancerous group of cells or tumor is present.
Due to the toxicity of many antineoplastics, what kind of cells get destroyed along with the cancerous ones? Normal, healthy cells.
What other things are classified as antineoplastics that are generally used for specific site treatments? Hormones, antitumor antibiotics, and radioactive isotopes.
What are some classes of antineoplastics? Hormones and antitumor antibiotics.
How are hormones used? Hormone therapy can be used to treat certain cancers that require hormones to grow.
What are antitumor antibiotics? Drugs that interact directly with cancer cells to prevent the DNA from functioning normally.
Some of the most widely used meds available are used to treat diseases and conditions of what system? The cardiovascular system.
What are some classes of cardiovascular agents? Beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, vasodilators, antianginals, antiarrhythmics, antihyperlipidemics, antihypertensives, and vasopressors.
What are beta blockers? Drugs that reduce the oxygen demands of the heart muscle.
What are calcium channel blockers? Drugs that relax the heart by reducing heart conduction.
What do diuretics do? Decrease blood pressure by decreasing blood volume.
What do ACE Inhibitors do? Relax the blood vessels.
What do vasodilators do? Relax and expand the blood vessels.
What do antianginals do? Treat cardiac related chest pain (angina) resulting from ischmic heart disease.
What do antiarrhythmics do? Treat irregular heart rhythms.
What do antihyperlipidemics do? Lower high cholesterol.
What do antihypertensives do? Reduce a sustained elevation in blood pressure.
What do vasopressors do? Increase blood pressure.
Skin provides what function for the body? It acts as a protective barrier.
What else does skin do for the body? Not only is it the largest of the body's organs, but it also protects the other organs against microorganisms, trauma, extreme temperature, and other harmful elements.
What is essential for good health and body function? Maintaining the proper balance of body fluids.
What are the 4 common electrolytes? Sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate.
What are gastrointestinal agents used for? To treat disorders of the stomach and/or intestines.
What are some classes of gastrointestinal agents? Antidiarrheals and antiemetics.
What do antidiarrheals do? Slow the movement of the intestinal contents to allow for greater water and electrolyte absorption.
What do antiemetics do? Treat nausea and vomiting.
What are hemapoietics? Drugs that treat various forms of anemia by stimulating or helping to stimulate blood cell growth.
The adrenal glands, which are located above each kidney, consist of what three sections? The outer section, the cortex, and the medulla.
What two hormones do the pancreas secrete? Insulin and glucagon.
Ophthalmic agents are used to treat various conditions or disorders of what? The eye.
Otic agents are used to treat conditions associated with what? The ear.
Psychotropic drugs are drugs that affect what? Behavior, psychiatric state, and sleep.
Sedatives are drugs that are intended to do what? Relax and calm.
Hypnotics, often referred to as sleeping pills, are designed to do what? Induce and, in some cases, prolong sleep.
What are some classes of respiratory agents? Antihistamines, decongestants, antitussives, expectorants and mucolytic agents, and bronchodilators.
What do antihistamines do? Block the action of histamines from white blood cells or from inflammation-producing substances.
What do decongestants do? Cause mucous vasoconstriction, reduce nasal passage drainage, and relieve stuffiness.
What do antitussives do? Treat productive (with phlegm) and nonproductive (w/o phlegm) coughs.
What do expectorants and mucolytic agents do? Treat chest congestion.
What do bronchodilators do? Relieve bronchospasm.
Created by: Ms.little1