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internal regulation

internal regulation for biological psychology

QuestionAnswer
Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the areas of the hypothalamus that regulate feeding
Aldosterone adrenal hormone that causes the kidneys to conserve sodium when excreting urine
Allostasis adaptive way in which the body changes its set points in response to changes in its life or changes in the environment
Angiotensin II hormone that constricts the blood vessels, contributing to hypovolemic thirst
Anorexia nervosa condition characterized by unwillingness to eat, severe weight loss, and sometimes death
Arcuate nucleus hypothalamic area with one set of neurons sensitive to hunger signals and another sensitive to satiety signals
Basal metabolism rate of energy use while the body is at rest, used largely for maintaining a constant body temperature
Bulimia nervosa condition characterized by alternation between dieting and overeating
Carnivores animals that eat meat
Cholecystokinin (CCK) hormone released by the duodenum in response to food distention
Conditioned taste aversions learned avoidance of a food whose consumption is followed by illness
Cytokines chemicals released by the immune system that attack infections and communicate with the brain to elicit anti-illness behaviors
Duodenum part of the small intestine adjoining the stomach; the first part of the digestive system that absorbs food
Ghrelin chemical released by stomach during food deprivation; also released as a neurotransmitter in the brain, where it stimulates eating
Glucagon pancreatic hormone that stimulates the liver to convert stored glycogen to glucose
Herbivores animals that eat plants
Homeostasis tendency to maintain a variable, such as temperature, within a fixed range
Homeothermic maintaining nearly constant body temperature over a wide range of environmental temperatures
Hypovolemic thirst thirst provoked by low blood volume
Insulin pancreatic hormone that facilitates the entry of glucose into the cells
Lactase enzyme necessary for lactose metabolism
Lactose the sugar in milk
Lateral hypothalamus area of the hypothalamus that is important for the control of eating and drinking
Lateral preoptic area portion of the hypothalamus that includes some cells that facilitate drinking and some that inhibit it, as well as passing axons that are important for osmotic thirst
Leptin peptide released by fat cells; tends to decrease eating, partly by inhibiting release of neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus
Melanocortin type of chemical that promotes satiety in the hypothalamus
Negative feedback in homeostasis, processes that reduce discrepancies from the set point
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) peptide found in the brain, especially the hypothalamus; it inhibits activity of the paraventricular nucleus and thereby increases meal size
Omnivores animals that eat both meat and plants
Osmotic pressure tendency of water to flow across a semipermeable membrane from the area of low solute concentration to the area of high solute concentration
Osmotic thirst thirst that results from an increase in the concentration of solutes in the body
OVLT (organum vasculosum laminae terminalis) brain structure on the border of the third ventricle, highly sensitive to the osmotic pressure of the blood
Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) area of the hypothalamus in which activity tends to limit meal size and damage leads to excessively large meals
Poikilothermic maintaining the body at the same temperature as the environment
Preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus (POA/AH) brain area important for temperature control
Set point level at which homeostatic processes maintain a variable
Sham-feeding procedure in which everything that an animal swallows leaks out a tube connected to the esophagus or stomach
Sodium-specific hunger enhanced preference for salty tastes during a period of sodium deficiency
Splanchnic nerves nerves carrying impulses from the thoracic and lumbar parts of the spinal cord to the digestive organs and from the digestive organs to the spinal cord; they convey information about the nutrient content of food in the digestive system
Subfornical organ (SFO) brain structure adjoining the third ventricle of the brain, where its cells monitor blood volume and relay information to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus
Supraoptic nucleus one of two areas of the hypothalamus that controls secretion of vasopressin
Vagus nerve (tenth cranial nerve) has branches to and from the stomach and several other organs; it conveys information about the stretching of the stomach walls
Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH) pituitary hormone that raises blood pressure and enables the kidneys to reabsorb water and therefore to secrete highly concentrated urine
Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) region of the hypothalamus in which damage leads to faster stomach emptying and increased secretion of insulin
Created by: jondoh on 2009-04-21



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