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OPT Fungal

candidiasis most common oral infection caused by {Candida albicans}
1. compromised immune system 2. altered oral microenvironment 3. virulent strain of C. albicans candidiasis infection precipitated by:
pseudomembranous candidiasis (thrush) most common form of candidiasis; white plaques like curdled milk can be rubbed off
erythematous pattern presentation of erythematous plaques; includes acute atrophic candidiasis, median rhomboid glossitis and angular cheilitis
acute atrophic candidiasis multiple red plaques after longterm antibiotic use
median rhomboid glossitis single lesion on mid-dorsum of tongue with papillary atrophy
angular cheilitis erythema, fissuring and scaling at corners of mouth
cheilocandidiasis caused by chronic lip licking
chronic atrophic candidiasis forms on denture-bearing areas due to constant wear; usually due to a dirty denture {denture stomatitis}
chronic hyperplastic candidiasis (candidal leukoplakia) adherent white plaque that does not rub off; candida repopulates leukoplakia and increases epithelial dysplasia on biopsy
mucocutaneous candidiasis more severe form of candidiasis from endocrine disturbances (APECED); increased risk of oral cancer
1. nystatin 2. clotrimazole 3. ketoconazole 3 treatments for candidiasis:
histoplasmosis most common deep fungal infection caused by {Histoplasma capsulatum}, a dimorphic fungus
acute form of histoplasmosis self-limiting in healthy people, flu-like symptoms for 2 weeks and hilar lymph node calcification
chronic form of histoplasmosis in lungs of older patients and resembles TB
disseminated form of histoplasmosis least common form in immunocompromised, extends from lungs into oral cavity
blastomycosis self-limiting disease restricted to lungs caused by {Blastomyces dermatitides}
paracoccidioidomycosis deep fungal infection caused by {Paracoccidioides brasiliensis} in South America
coccidioidomycosis deep fungal infection caused by {Coccidioides immitis} in American Southwest
erythema multiforme hypersensitivity reaction of a skin rash or nodules; combined with coccidioidomycosis is called 'valley fever'
chronic progressive pulmonary form rare form of coccidioidomycosis; in immunocompromised patients and causes lesions on face
cryptococcosis uncommon deep fungal infection caused by {Cryptococcus neoformans}; presents in AIDS patients
mucormycosis caused by several harmless fungi in decaying organic material, especially in insulin-dependent diabetics
invasive fungal sinusitis necrosis from fungal invasion of small vessels due to fungal affinity for iron; localized invasive infection of maxillary sinus
aspergillosis opportunistic fungal disease caused by {Aspergillus flavus/fumigatus}, sometimes nosocomial
allergic fungal sinusitis an allergy affecting the maxillary sinus in healthy patients
fungus ball/mycetoma/aspergilloma non-invasive accumulation of aspergillus in maxillary sinus; called an {antrolith} if becomes calcified
disseminated aspergillosis aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients; TB-like symptoms
toxoplasmosis caused by protozoal organism {Toxoplasma gondii} from cats; detrimental for immunocompromised and developing fetus
congenital toxoplasmosis organism crosses placental barrier and causes blindness, CNS and motor impairment in fetus
leishmaniasis protozoa transmitted by the sandfly
cutaneous leishmaniasis most common form 3-6 weeks after bite; forms crater-like lesions
mucocutaneous leishmaniasis most destructive form of diffuse involvement; ulcers, nodules, and perforation of nasal septum
visceral (kala azar) development of grayish skin, hepatosplenomegaly, fever and weight loss
Created by: Alexandra Arnold Alexandra Arnold