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neuroanatomy

neuroanatomy for biological psychology

QuestionAnswer
Ablation removal of a structure
Anterior commissure set of axons connecting the two cerebral hemispheres; smaller than the corpus callosum
Autonomic nervous system set of neurons that regulates functioning of the internal organs
Basal ganglia set of subcortical forebrain structures lateral to the hypothalamus, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus
Bell-Magendie law observation that the dorsal roots of the spinal cord carry sensory information and that the ventral roots carry motor information toward the muscles and glands (SAD MEV)
Binding problem question of how the visual, auditory, and other areas of the brain influence one another to produce a combined perception of a single object
Brainstem hindbrain, midbrain, and posterior central structures of the forebrain
Central canal fluid-filled channel in the center of the spinal cord
Central nervous system (CNS) brain and spinal cord
Central sulcus large groove in the surface of the primate cerebral cortex, separating frontal from parietal cortex
Cerebellum highly convoluted structure in the hindbrain
Cerebral cortex outer covering of the cerebellum
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) liquid similar to blood serum, found in the ventricles of the brain and in the central canal of the spinal cord
Computerized axial tomography (CT or CAT scan) method of visualizing a living brain by injecting a dye into the blood and then passing x-rays through the head and recording them by detectors on the other side
Corpus callosum large set of axons that connects the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
Cranial nerves part of a set of nerves controlling sensory and motor information of the head, connecting to nuclei in the medulla, pons, midbrain, or forebrain
Delayed-response task assignment in which stimulus appears briefly, and the individual must respond to the remembered stimulus after a brief delay
Dorsal located toward the back, away from the ventral (stomach) side
Dorsal root ganglia set of sensory neuron somata on the dorsal side of the spinal cord
Electroencephalograph (EEG) device that measures the brain's electrical activity through electrodes on the scalp
Evoked potentials or evoked responses electrical activity of the brain in response to a stimulus, as recorded from the scalp
Forebrain most anterior part of the brain, including the cerebral cortex and other structures
Frontal lobe section of cerebral cortex extending from the central sulcus to the anterior limit of the brain, containing the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) modified version of MRI that measures energies released by hemoglobin molecules in an MRI scan and then determines the brain areas receiving the greatest supply of blood and oxygen
Gene-knockout approach use of biochemical methods to direct a mutation to a particular gene that is important for certain types of cells, transmitters, or receptors
Gray matter areas of the nervous system with a high density of cell bodies and dendrites, with few myelinated axons
Hindbrain most posterior part of the brain, including the medulla, pons, and cerebellum
Hippocampus large forebrain structure between the thalamus and cortex; named for its sea-horse shape
Hypothalamus forebrain structure near the base of the brain just ventral to the thalamus
Inferior colliculus swelling on each side of the tectum in the midbrain
Klüver-Bucy syndrome condition in which monkeys with damaged temporal lobes fail to display normal fears and anxieties
Lamina (pl.: laminae) layer of cell bodies parallel to the surface of the cortex and separated from other laminae by layers of fibers
Lesion damage to a structure
Limbic system forebrain areas traditionally regarded as critical for emotion; form a border around the brainstem, including the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus of the cerebral cortex, and several other smaller structures
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method of imaging a living brain by using a magnetic field and a radio frequency field to make atoms with odd atomic weights all rotate in the same direction and then removing those fields and measuring the energy that the atoms release
Magnetoencephalograph (MEG) device that measures the faint magnetic fields generated by the brain's activity
Medulla hindbrain structure located just above the spinal cord; the medulla could be regarded as an enlarged, elaborated extension of the spinal cord
Meninges membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Midbrain middle part of the brain, including superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, tectum, and tegmentum
Neuroanatomy anatomy of the nervous system
Nucleus basalis area on the dorsal surface of the forebrain; a major source of axons that release acetylcholine to widespread areas in the cerebral cortex
Occipital lobe posterior (caudal) section of the cerebral cortex
Parasympathetic nervous system system of nerves that facilitate vegetative, nonemergency responses by the body's organs
Parietal lobe section of the cerebral cortex between the occipital lobe and the central sulcus
Peripheral nervous system nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
Phrenology pseudoscience that claimed a relationship between skull anatomy and behavioral capacities
Pituitary gland endocrine gland attached to the base of the hypothalamus
Pons hindbrain structure, anterior and ventral to the medulla
Positron-emission tomography (PET) method of mapping activity in a living brain by recording the emission of radioactivity from injected chemicals
Postcentral gyrus gyrus of the cerebral cortex just posterior to the central gyrus; a primary projection site for touch and other body sensations
Prefrontal cortex anterior portion of the frontal lobe of the cortex, which responds mostly to the sensory stimuli that signal the need for a movement
Prefrontal lobotomy surgical disconnection of the prefrontal cortex from the rest of the brain
Primate order of mammals that includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and others
Raphe system group of neurons in the pons and medulla whose axons extend throughout much of the forebrain
Reticular formation network of neurons in the medulla and other parts of the brainstem; the descending portion controls motor areas of the spinal cord; the ascending portion selectively increases arousal and attention in various forebrain areas
Sham lesion control procedure for an experiment, in which an investigator inserts an electrode into a brain but does not pass a current
Somatic nervous system nerves that convey messages from the sense organs to the CNS and from the CNS to muscles and glands
Spinal cord part of the CNS found within the spinal column; it communicates with the sense organs and muscles below the level of the head
Stereotaxic instrument device for the precise placement of electrodes in the head
Substantia nigra midbrain area that gives rise to a dopamine-containing pathway
Superior colliculus swelling on either side of the tectum, responsible for certain aspects of vision, including eye movements
Sympathetic nervous system network of nerves that prepare the body's organs for vigorous activity
Tectum roof of the midbrain
Tegmentum intermediate level of the midbrain
Temporal lobe lateral portion of each hemisphere, near the temples
Thalamus structure in the center of the forebrain
Transcranial magnetic stimulation application of an intense magnetic field to a portion of the scalp to influence the neurons below the magnet
Ventral located toward the stomach, away from the back (dorsal) side
Ventricle any of the four fluid-filled cavities in the brain
White matter area of the nervous system consisting mostly of myelinated axons
Created by: jondoh on 2009-04-20



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