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Colorado History


Basketmakers ancient Puebloan people that made and used baskets, planted corn, squash, beans. Used stone tools, atlatl, and mano & metate.
Modifies Basketmakers Puebloan people that were more modern. Made pottery and probley traded with other tribes. Built pit houses, stone tools, and domesticated at least one animal.
Pithouses A hole dug in ground and built a shelter around it.
Atlatl spear throwing device. Gave more power to the thrust
Mano & Metate used to grind corn, wheat, and seeds
Developmental Puebloan constructed adobe (mud bricks) houses
Kiva a circle subterran whole, about 8 feet deep. Was used as a social meeting area and religious ceremonies
Sipapu symbolic hole to the "other world". A musical portal
Classical Period During Medieval time. Had advanced buildings, complex society, agriculturally advanced. Built irrigation systems, No written communication system, no wheel, did have social order.
Petroglyphs pecked into the sand stone canyon walls, Bold and darker pictures. Males had large broad shoulders and women had broad hips
Pictographs images drawn or painted on canyon walls, lighter colored pictures
Mesa Verde living structure build into the cliffs. High off the valley floors
Treaty of Tortillas- 1494 The Pope decided Spain could claim land in the Western hemisphere
7 Cities of Cibola- 1528 Mythical 7 cities of gold that Spanish were looking for
Fransisco Cornado-1540 Lead an expedition into New Mexico in search of the 7 cities of gold
Don Juan de Onate- 1598 Father of New Mexico settlement. He brought soldiers families, monks, slaves and livestock.
Santa Fe- 1609 became new capital of the northern New Mexico.
Aroma Pueblo- 1598 people still living in these structures. The Puebloans that live there are not letting the Spanish take over
Custos the head monk
Regula The process the Spanish created to convert the Puebloan Indians. Could be punished if they did not follow the "rules"
3 Agents of Spanish Settlements 1-Civilian, 2-Presidios (protection), 3- Missions
Juan de Archuleta- 1664-1680 Hired to find and recapture run away Puebloans. Never found any. First known Spanish into Colorado
Pope from San Juan Puebloan leader in regular revolt. Set fire to farms, missions
Don Deago Vargas Became the new governor and was willing to work with the Puebloans
Louisiana Purchase Land purchase was arranged by Jefferson from France in 1803. The purchase cost 15 million. Jefferson just wanted the New Orleans Coast
Zebulon Pike- 1806 A well know expeditionist never claimed Pike's peak, but was the first to describe it.
James Wilconson Was a double agent- worked for America and Spanish. Faked authorization for Pike's second expedition
Yellowstone Expedition up the Missouri River to establish military fort to North Dakota was lead by Stephen H Long. Mission was a failure
Stephen H Long Lead of scientific branch of the Yellowstone Expedition
Edwin James Was hired by Stephen Long on the 2nd installment of Yellowstone expedition. Long and James decides to climb Pike's Peak and made it to the summit. First known Americans to do so. Long wished to chance the mountain's name to James Mountain
Rocky Mountain Fur Trade- 1820-1840 The fur trade lasted only about 20 years.
Bent's Fort A place for trading established by William Bent, Charles Bent, and St Vrain. On the Arkansas River in southern Colorado. Was the only stopping point between St. Louis and Santa Fe. Was used by military during the Mexican-American War
William Bent In charge of Bent's Fort. Married two Cheyenne women to establish a good relationship with the Indians.
Hardscrabble and Greenhorn- 1840-1850 Two early town settlements that dies out during the gold mining years
Carlos Beaubien and Guadalupe MIranda Two were in charge of settling land grants given out by Mexican government. Included Maxwell, San de Cristo,
Land Grants Chunks of land handed out by the Mexican government. This was their attempt to claim the land that was going to be fought over during the Mexican-American War.
Fort Massachusetts Was constructed at the base of Mount Blanco to guard the town of San Luis. Fort began to sink and new fort was built
Fort Garland Was constructed because Fort Massachusetts was sinking, Was closer to San Luis
John C Fremont- 1848 Was hired to find a possible route for railroads to the west coast
Bill Williams Hired by Fremont to guide in through the Rockies during the winter months. Told Fremont that it was a bad idea.
John Gunnison- 1853 Was a leader on a expedition called "Topographical Corps". Was more prepared than Fremont's crew. His thought was if a mule train could make it through the mountains, then so could a railroad
Fort Laramie Treaty- 1851 A meeting of 10,000 Indians. Tribes agreed to live in peace with each other. Basically they were separated on to reservations
Pike's Peak Gold Rush- 1859 Colorado's gold rush. William Green Russell found some gold in the winter of 1858. First gold was found in Cherry Creek area
Gen. Larimer and Ed Wynkoop These two teamed up to scope out western territory for Kansas. Also wanted to look for a site for a town. Decides that St. Charles is a good place for a town and change the name to Denver City
Mining the Miners Merchants came here to sell supplies to people coming west in search of gold
George Jackson Found gold at the intersection of Clear Creek and Chicago Creek. Returns to Arapahoe City and tells only one person, John Golden. Joins a group of Chicago people with money and create a grubstake
John Gregory Found gold nuggets near George Jackson's find
Lode Mining follows gold veins in quartz rock inside the mountain. Requires lots of money and dynamite
Placer Mining less expensive mining. Uses sluice, rocker, simple
Grubstake Mining gear is given in trade for percent of the take. Very risky and common type of business
Sluice Box looks like a trough, processes more yardage of sentiment
Rocker is a sluice box that rocks. Quicker than sluice box
Hydraulic Mining a damed creek, water is pumped to blast the mountain. Wash the side of the mountain into a sluice box. Highly destructive
Stamp Mills Huge machine that processes quartz
Clark, Gruber & Co- 1860-1863 Located in Denver. Could cast coins out of the gold from the mines. Was bought out by Federal Government
William Byers Established Rocky Mountain News newspaper
Denver Fire of 1863 City caught fire. 197 million dollars in damage and 70 building burned. Rebuilt stone buildings
Cherry Creek Flood of 1864 Heavy rain and snow melt caused the Cherry Creek to flood. 8 people were killed.
Created by: kmanguso