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Science MS Praxis 4

Earth and Space Science

sedimentary rocks form from the weathered remains of all 3 types of rocks that have been lithified
igneous rocks form with the crystallization of hot magma from within the earth. the slower the cooling the larger the crystals
metamorphic rocks rocks are formed by heat, pressure and or chemicals altering existing rock deep within the earth's crust
Mons Scale hardness scale of a mineral; one mineral is capable of scratching another must be harder
Talc Hardness 1
Gypsum Hardness 2 (2.5 is a fingernail)
Calcite Hardness 3 (copper penny)
Fluorite Hardness 4
Apatite Hardness 5 (Nail)
Potassium Feldspar Hardness 6
Quartz Hardness 7
Topaz Hardness 8
Corundum Hardness 9
Diamond Hardness 10 can scratch glass
Mineral classification by crystal size, luster, color, streak, hardness, cleavage, and fracture properties
aridisols very dray and light in color soil
mollisols dark and fertile soil in grasslands
alifisols soil found under forest vegetation from Southern Florida to Minnesota
ultisols SE US tend to be red soil and are found near lots of water
spodsols rich soil with sand
entisols immature sands deposited from wind or water
inceptisols soil found in tundra environments
vertisols heavy clay
histosols organic soil from poor drainage areas
andisols volcanic material
Layers of the Earth inner core, outer core, mantle and crust
lithosphere outer most layer, land area we see
biosphere the life on earth
atmosphere the layer of gases surrounding the earth
hydrosphere the water portion of the earth of which 3% is freshwater and 97% salt water. large portion of the freshwater is locked up in the glaciers
folding when 2 plates are compressing against one another, the folding causes either an Anticline (the shape of an A) or a Syncline to occur
faulting where 2 plates move past each other
earthquakes vibrations of the earth's crust caused by the rapid release of energy
volcanoes usually are found along fault lines. they are an area where hot magma is thrown from the center of the earth at intervals
plate tectonic theory earth's continents are on large plates that float on the earth's mantle. they were once all one super continent
continental drift theory the fit of the continents, like that of a large puzzle, fossil evidence on different continents aligned with the puzzle, and rock types and structure similarities where the continents would have been connected
evaporation from the oceans and streams
precipitation over the land
water moves through the cycle by the means of evaporation, precipitation, infiltration, transpiration, runoff
infiltration water seeping into the lakes and streams through the soil
transpiration absorbed by plants and later released back into the atmosphere
runoff from the lakes and streams back into the large oceans and seas
weathering two types mechanical and chemical
mechanical weathering caused by frost wedging expansion, thermal expansion and biological activity
chemical weathering causes dissolution, oxidation and hydrolysis
erosion the transportation of material by water, wind and ice. it occurs mainly due to weathering
deposition when water vapor turns into ice without going through the liquid state
uniformarianism states that physical chemical and biological properties that exist today also existed in the past the same principles. it does not mean that things occurred at the same rate as they do today
stratigraphy or Laws of supposition looking at a side of layers of rocks the oldest rocks will be on the bottom&the newer rocks will be on the top
igneous intrusions will be newer than the layers of rocks they cut through as those rocks would have had to have been there before they could seep through
relative dating is placing rocks and structures in an order of occurrence based on evidence and then extrapolating the dates of existence
absolute dating when you know the exact date a formation occurred, example. the weathering of a tombstone can be considered absolute bc you have a date of which the tombstone was placed there
petrified animals cavities are filled with minerals and replaced
mold shell buried in sediment then dissolved away leaves a mold
cast when the mold is filled with a mineral
carbonization left behind carbon in the shape of an animal
impressions prints or shapes left in rocks
amber some animals such as insects get trapped in a resin like material leaving complete animals preserved
information fossils can provide information about the surface of the earth (water or land), the climate of an area and the types organisms that existed at that time period
Eons Phanerozoic, Proterozoic, Archean, Hadean
Era (PMC) Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic
Periods Quarternary and Tertiary Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic Permian, Pennsylvanian, Mississippian, Devonian, Silurian, Ordovician, Cambrian Precambrian
Epoch Holocene, Pleistocene, Piocene, Miocene, Oligocene, Eocene, Paleocene,
4 Oceans Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic
12 Seas Coral, Arabian, South China, Mediterranean, Bering, Bay of Bengal, Sea of Okhotsk, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Guinea, Barents Sea, Norwegian Sea, Gulf of Alaska
Ocean Waves Movement of energy through a meduim. water doesnt move but orbits in small circles. caused by the wind blowing across the ocean surface 4 types: capillary, wind wave, seiche, seismic wave, tide
capillary wind driven
wind wave wind over ocean
seiche change in atmospheric pressure, storm surge or tsunami
seismic wave volcanic eruption of faulting on the seafloor
tide gravitational attraction of the rotation
primary causes and factors that influence tides tides are caused by inertia and the gravitational pull of both the moon and the sun on the earths surface, causes the rhythmic rising and falling of the water on the earth surface, most coasts have semidiurnal tides or 2 high and 2 low tides per day
neap tides occur are the smallest variations between the high and low tide and occur when the sun earth and moon are at right angles
spring tides occur when the earth sun and moon are in a straight line and are the largest variations between the high and low tide
topography and landforms of the ocean floor and shorelines seafloor landforms created in similar ways to continental landformsvocanoes deposit lava solidified into rock/can create islands&canyons sea floor spreading cause mass plains areas mountain building such as faulting&folding cause underwater moutain ranges
abyssal plain area where sea floor spreading has created flat plains like area under water
continental shelf shallow region extending out from the continents
continental slope where the shelf meets the deep reaches of the ocean
ridge underwater mountain range
trench ocean floor canyon
currents caused by the sinking of colder dense water and the rising of warmer water. the water circulates due to the uneven heating of the earth between the poles and the equator
Cold Currents Antarctic Circumpolar, Peru, Benauela, Greenland, Labrador, California, Alaskan, Kamchatka, Canary
Warm Currents North Pacific, Equatorial Counter, Sourth Equatorial, Eastern Australia, Gulf Stream, North Equatorial, North Atlantic
factors influencing seasonal and latitudinal variation of solar radiation tilt of the earth causes the seasons. the angle the sun's rays strike the earth causes variations. the earth is closer to the sun in january than in july
chemical composition of the atmosphere N 78% O 21% Ar .9% CO2 .03% Others %1
Troposphere nearly all weather initiats
ionosphere is an electrically charged area
Layers of the earth Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Exosphere
Relative Humidity the amount of water vapor compared to what the body of air could hold
absolute humidity the amount of water vapor compared to the volume of air
dew point temperature air is cooled to, to reach saturation point
frost point temperature in which ice crystals form when temp reaches a dew point below freezing
specific heat amount of heat required to raise the temperature. water has a 3 x's greater specific heat than land. land will heat quicker
precipitation sleet, freezing rain, hail, snow
sleet rain freeze when passing through a subfreezing layer of air
freezing rain cold air freezes on contact with a frozen surface
hail lumps of raindrops that have gathered layers from being up drafted back into the clouds
snow ice crystals that formed in cool temps and pass continually through cool temps until hitting the ground
high clouds cirrus, cirrostratus and cirrocumulus
middle clouds altocumulus and alto stratus
low clouds stratus stratocumulus nimbostratus cumulus and cumulonimbus
continental arctic (cA) cold and dry air from arctic and greeland
continental polar (cP) very cold and dry air from Canada and Alaska
continental tropical (cT) hot and dry air from the SW US (mostly summer)
maritime tropical (mT) SE US warm and humid
maritime polar (mP) mildly cool and humid all year long Western USA
high pressure system stable air associated with clearing air and good weather
low pressure system unstable air, associated with bad weather. Tornadoes and hurricanes have extremely low pressures
cold front moves cooler air under warm air. heavy rain usually found ahead of the front
warm front warm air moving over colder air, light rain over a large area
stationary front several days stalled movement, causes of most flooding rains
occluded front two fronts overlapping, cold front conquers a warm front
isobar points of equal pressure
isotherms connecting points of air temperature
short term weather computer modeling persistence forecasts, trend forecasting and "nowcasting" -- weather radar and geostationary satellites
long term weather climatic data and computer modeling; examine statistical records of past and compare to the visual data of the current weather. extrapolate potential weather. nearly all done by computer modeling
desertification spreading of desert conditions mostly by clear cutting and removal of forests
effects on the regional and local natural factors of climate temperature and precipitation
temperature based on latitude altitude distance to a body of water and ocean currents
precipitation based on mountains and winds
desertification spreading of desert conditions mostly by clear cutting and removal forests
greenhouse increase in greenhouse gases can potentially cause global warming.
volcanic ash blocks sunlight, causing cooler temperatures
el nino period of ocean warming that effect eastern tropical pacitic (warmer waters in the NE US and West; drought in Indonesia, Australia and Phillippines; suppress hurricanes in the Atlantic)
Big Bang Theory universe created when condense matter exploded pushing matter into space&creating stars/planets accepted in the scientific community supported by fact other galaxies moving away newton/kepler laws applied to universe fits data we receive goes w/evolution
redshift data galaxies are moving away from ours
creationism held by various faiths whereby a being created the heavens earth&all of its living creatures some theologians access that earth is as young as 10000 yo evidence provided by churches doesnt often past the test of science but until either case both theories
Au distance between earth and the sun, approx 150 million km or 93 million miles
LY distance it takes light to travel in a year, approx 63000 AU or 9.6 trillion km
parsec distance from the sun to object with a || angle of 1 arc
life cycle of a start gas cloud condenses in space a dense body of material develops into a proto star>main sequence star>red giant star> planetary nebula?white dwarf star initial energy source is gravitational energy if the star has enough mass fusion occurs
suns 3 areas photosphere, chromosphere and corona, solar flares
photosphere part most likely seen by us on the earth, approximately 5800 C
chromosphere approximately 10000 C
corona seen during eclipse of the sun 1-2 million C
solar flares have cycles of approximately 11 years and can effect weather on earth; spinicules and solar winds
major theories involving the origin of the solar system solar system about 5 myo 2 possible theories Evolutionary Theory and Catastrophe
Evolutionary Theory suggests initially lrg globular cloud of gas that was spinning from big bang the spinning brings about conservation of angular momentum&the gas cloud begins flatten&spin rather fast as gas cool elements form&group together to form planets asteroids moons
Catastrophe a comet closed very close to the sun and dragged material away from the sun
where does the energy come from? nuclear fusion in which 4 H nuclei and fused to make 1 He Hydrostatic Equilibruim also contributes to the sun's energy The gravitational pull of material downward pull of material downward equal to the upward forces cause by the nuclear fusion in the core
movement in the solar system planets comets asteroids and nearly all celestial objects orbit in elliptical patterns
Jovian Planets Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune (Pluto)
Terrestrial Planets Mercury Venus Earth Mars
Location of the sun 1/3 on the outer part of the Milky Way most bodies we see with the naked eye oare in our planet
Lunar eclipse when the earth is between the moon and the sun, seen at night, does not always happen because the moon orbits at an inclination
solar eclipse when the moon is between the earth and the sun, this type averages 2 per year but can only be seen in a very small location at one time
causes moon phases moons revolutions and rotation periods are excatly alike the moon orbits the earth a little less than one time per month as the moon moves around the earth we only see the portion which is pacing the sun the moon's phases go as followed
moon phases new > crescent> waxing 1st quarter > waxing gibbous > full moon > waning gibbous> waning 3rd quarter > new moon
Earth's seasons tilted axis 23.5 degrees during summer the northern hemisphere positioned facing toward the sun winter the sourthern hemisphere angled toward the sun it should be noted that the earth closest in its orbits the sun during the northern hemispheres winter
year the amount of time it takes the earth to revolve around the sun
day time it takes the earth to make a complete rotation
hour 15 degrees of longitude on earth
understanding time zones prime meridian is at 0 longitude through england, each spacing is = 15 (= 1 hr) total of 24 lines of longitude & a 360 circumference around the earth 180 longitude International Data Line position on earth where our calendars change from 1 day to the next
geosnchronous orbits and recognize how satellites circle the earth once a day, time it takes to travel around the earth is called its period,
geostationary satellites hover over the equator, they are used for TV broadcasting cell phones weather and military
manned space missions not cost effective limits include time constraints and the ability to supply enough food oxygen and water for human beings for a period of time trips to the moon and space station
unmanned space missions greater potential can operate at much longer durations w/out the need to return to the earth equipment can be smaller and much more cost effective ex would be hubble space telescope mars rovers spirit&opportunity&cassini-huygens mission (saturn and moons)
scientific contributions of remote sensing remote sensing is used to view a wide variety of conditions on the earth, have been used to view the magnetic field, the heat, the atmosphere, "hole in the ozone" POES and GOES weather satellites etc.
Created by: scandisandi