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Bryz Ch. 8 Med Term

Medical Terminology Chapter 8 Terms

an/o anus, ring
chol/e bile, gall
cholecyst/o gallbladder
col/o, colon/o colon, large intestine
-emesis vomiting
enter/o small intestine
esophag/o esophagus
gastr/o stomach, belly
hepat/o liver
-lithiasis presence of stones
-pepsia digest, digestion
-phagia eating, swallowing
proct/o anus and rectum
rect/o rectum, straight
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
aerophagia excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach
anastomosis surgical connection between two hollow, or tubular, structures
anorexia nervosa eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance
antiemetic medication that is administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting
aphthous ulcers gray-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth
ascites abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
bariatrics branch of medicine concerning obesity and associated diseases
borborygmus Rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine
bulimia nervosa eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications
cachexia physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with disease such as advanced cancer or AIDS
celiac disease autoimmune disorder also known as gluten intolerance characterized by a severe reaction to foods containing gluten
cheilosis disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth
cholangiography radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of contrast medium
cholangitis inflammation of the bile duct characterized by pain in the upper-right quadrant of the abdomen, fever, and jaundice
cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gallbladder
cholecystitis inflammation of the gall bladder, usually associated with gallstones blocking the flow of bile
choledeocholithotomy incision into the common bile duct for the removal of a gallstone
cholelithiasis Presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
cirrhosis chronic degenerative disease of the liver characterized by scarring
colonoscopy Visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum
colostomy surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface
Crohn's disease chronic autoimmune disorder that can occur anywhere in the digestive tract; however, it is most often found in the ileum and in the colon
diverticulitis inflammation or infection of one or more diverticulum in the colon
diverticulosis chronic presence of an abnormal number of diverticula in the colon
dyspepsia pain or discomfort in digestion
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
enteritis inflammation of the small intestine cause by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral and bacterial pathogens
eructation act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach
esophageal varices enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus
esophagogastroduodenoscopy endoscopic procedure that allows direct visualization of the upper GI tract
gastroduodenostomy establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach, and the duodenum
gastroesophageal reflux disease also known as GERD, is the upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus
gastrostomy tube Surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body directly into the stomach
hematemesis Vomiting of blood
Hemoccult test laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools
hepatitis inflammation of the liver usually caused by a viral infection
herpes labialis blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissues that are caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1
hiatal hernia anatomical abnormality in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest through an opening in the diaphragm
hyperemesis extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration
ileus partial or complete blockage of the small or large intestine
inguinal hernia protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin
jaundice yellow discoloration of the mucous membranes, skin, and the eyes
leukoplakia abnormal white precancerous lesion that develops on the tongue or the inside of the cheek
melena passage of black, tarry, and foul-smelling stools
morbid obesity condition of weighing two times or more than the ideal weight or having a body mass index value greater than 40
nasogastric intubation placement of a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach
obesity excessive accumulation of fat in the body
palatoplasty surgical repair of a cleft palate, also used to refer to the repair of a cleft lip
peptic ulcers sores that affect the mucous membranes of the digestive system
peristalsis Wave-like contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction moving food along the esophagus and digestive system
polyp mushroom-like growth from the surface of a mucous membrane
proctologist Physician who specializes in disorders of the colon, rectum, and anus
regurgitation the return of swallowed food into the mouth
salmonellosis (salmonella) transmitted by feces, either through direct contact with animals or by eating contaminated foods
sigmoidoscopy Endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon
stomatitis inflammation of the mucosa of the mouth
trismus any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery, or radiation associated with the treatment of oral cancer
ulcerative colitis chronic condition where repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum and large intestine cause ulcers
volvulus twisting of the intestine on itself, causing an obstruction
xerostomia (dry mouth) lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands
Created by: ebryzgornia