Busy. Please wait.

Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the email address associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know (0)
Know (0)
remaining cards (0)
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how



PMS course 1-2 weeks before menses (during luteal phase) to 1-2 days post onset; symptom-free during follicular phase
DUB causes usually increased anovulatory cycles; also PCOS, obesity, adrenal hyperplasia
endometriosis pathophysiology endometrial glands & stroma outside endometrium, usually pelvis or on ovary (90%) or distant
Amenorrhea: pathophysiology (if low/normal FSH): HPA tumor, Cushing, hypothyroid, high testosterone, uterine malformation.
Dysmenorrhea: tx Heat, thiamine; vitamin E; NSAIDs, celebrex; OCPs. Laparoscopy if tx failure (to rule out causes of secondary dysmenorrhea)
Cervicitis: etiology often CT/NG; or idiopathic
Amenorrhea: dx tests LH, FSH, prolactin, testosterone, TSH, FT4, hCG, DHEA-S, estradiol
secondary dysmenorrhea etiology endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomata, chronic PID. Onset usually after age 25
primary dysmenorrhea etiology frequent/ prolonged uterine contractions mediated by prostaglandins -> decreased blood flow to myometrium -> ischemia (uterine "angina"). Onset 1-2 yrs post-menarche
Chronic pelvic pain sx Intermittent, cyclical, dull, nonspecific, diffuse. Generally afebrile
Endometriosis sx Dysmenorrhea; dyspaurenia; low back pain. Adhesive dz possible. Improved with suppression of ovulation
Osteitis pubis Symphysis pain; Pelvic joint instability following childbirth
Vulvodynia Vulvar pain; Painful urination; Dyspaurenia; Vaginal and Pelvic floor symptoms
Primary dysmenorrhea: onset within: 1-2 years of menarche
Musculoskeletal pelvic pain includes: Myofascial pain; Muscle spasm; Round ligament; Spinal nerve innervation
Painful bladder syndrome = Dysuria; Negative UA; Urinary Frequency; Dyspareunia ; Dx of exclusion/ autoimmune component
Overweight, irregular menstrual cycles or amenorrhea, infertility, elevated blood sugar, hirsutism = PCOS (Stein-Leventhal syndrome)
Adolescent female with midcycle pain alternating from left to right side. Relieved w/ NSAIDs Mittelschmerz
Dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dyschezia. Uterus is fixed, retroflexed. Cyclic pelvic pain. May have palpable pelvic mass = Endometriosis
Palpable pelvic mass (chocolate cyst) = Endometriosis
primary amenorrhea = absence of menses by 13 yo (in pt w/o secondary sexual characteristics) or by 15 yo (in pts having secondary sexual characteristics)
secondary amenorrhea = cessation of menses after onset of menarche, lasting 3+ months
secondary amenorrhea: pt w/o secondary sex characteristics = 2/2 gonad agenesis, pubertal delay, ovarian resistance syndrome, galactosemia, GnRH def, CNS mass lesion
secondary amenorrhea: pt w/ breast devt but no pubic hair = androgen insensitivity
secondary amenorrhea: normal 2nd sex characteristics = imperforate hymen, transverse vaginal septum, mullerian dysgenesis
secondary amenorrhea: incomplete 2nd sex characteristics = HPA tumor, hypothyroid, hyperprolactinemia, premature ovar failure
secondary amenorrhea, not PG: Asherman syndrome (uterine synechiae) or PCOS
primary dysmenorrhea = painful menses 2/2 xs prostaglandin E2 secretion; onset near menarche, peaks in late teens
secondary dysmenorrhea = 2/2 other condition (endometriosis, adenomyosis, fibroids); usu >25 yo
Ectopic PG sx Missed menses/unusual menses; Lower abdominal/pelvic pain; Vaginal bleeding; Positive PG test
Ovarian cyst sx Unilateral/diffuse; Sharp; Spontaneous resolution common; Uncommon on OCPs
Ovarian torsion sx severe pain, down legs/back
average uterine length = 6-8 cm
uterine (apical) prolapse grading 0 (no descent) to 4 (thru hymen)
anterior vaginal wall prolapse includes: cystocele or cystourethrocele
apical vaginal prolapse includes: uretovaginal or vaginal vault prolapse
posterior vaginal prolapse includes: enterocele or rectocele
Atrophic vaginitis often masquerades as: Infection
atrophic vaginitis S/S Pruritis/burning, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, possibly spotting, pale/thin vaginal mucosa, loss of vaginal rugation; women w/o menses (decreased estrogen)
PCOS pathology Abnormal gonadotropin secretion with excessive androgen production with pituitary suppression
Amenorrhea: pathophysiology (if high FSH): Ovarian, Turner, autoimmune. High LH: pseudohermaphroditism
Menstrual cycle definitions Normal: Q24-38 days. Oligo: interval >36 days. Polymenorrhea: interval <21 days
Primary amenorrhea causes developmental/absence of repro organs, ovarian failure, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, androgen insensitivity, chronic anovulation
Secondary amenorrhea causes CNS, pituitary/thyroid/adrenal/ovarian/uterine dysfn, strenuous exercise
endometritis sx/sx usually post C-section or if membrane rupture >24 hours pre-delivery. sx/sx 2-3 days post partum; fever >101F, uterine tenderness
Created by: Adam Barnard Adam Barnard