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Bryz Ch. 13 Med Term

Medical Terminology Chapter 13 Terms

Acr/o Extremities (hands and feet), top, extreme point
Adren/o Adrenal glands
Crin/o Secrete
-dipsia Thirst
Glyc/o Glucose, sugar
Gonad/o Gonad, sex glands
-ism Condition, state of
Pancreat/o Pancreas
Parathyroid/o Parathyroid glands
Pineal/o Pineal gland
Pituitar/o Pituitary gland
Poly Many
Somat/o Body
Thym/o Thymus gland
Thyr/o, thyroid/o Thyroid gland
Acromegaly Rare chronic disease characterized by abnormal enlargement of the extremeties
Addison's Disease When the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone characterized by chronic, worsening fatigue, and muscle weakness, loss of appetite, low blood pressure, and weight loss
Adrenalitis Inflammation of the adrenal glands
Aldosteronism Abnormality of the electrolyte balance that is caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Secreted by the hypothalamus and stored/released by the pituitary gland
Calcitonin Decreases calcium levels in the blood and tissues by moving calcium into storage in the bones and teeth
Conn's Syndrome Disorder of adrenal glands caused by excessive aldosterone production
Cortisol (Hydrocortisone) Corticosteroid that has an anti-inflammatory action
Cretinism Congenital form of hypothyroidism which if not treated can cause arrested physical and mental development
Cushing's Syndrome (hypercortisolism) caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol
Diabetes Insipidus Caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone ADH or by inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to this hormone
Diabetes Mellitus Group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both
Diabetic Retinopathy When diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina
Electrolytes Mineral substances such as sodium and potassium that are normally found in the blood
Epinephrine (adrenaline) stimulates the sympathetic nervous system. It makes the heart beat faster and can raise blood pressure
Estrogen Hormone secreted by the ovaries that is important in the development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics and regulation in the menstrual cycle
Exophthalmos Abnormal protusion of the eyeball out of the orbit
Follicle-stimulating hormone Stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of ova in the ovaries and production of sperm in the testicles
Fructosamine Test Measures average glucose levels over the previous 3 weeks.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Form of diabetes that occurs during some pregnancies
Gigantism Abnormal growth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone before puberty
Glucagon (GCG) secreted in response to low levels of glucose in the blood stream.
Glucose (Blood sugar) basic form of energy used by the body
Graves' Disease Disorder of unknown cause which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland and stimulates it to make excessive amounts of thyroid hormone
Growth Hormone (Somatotropic hormone) Regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues
Gynecomastia Condition of excessive mammary development in the male
Hashimoto's Disease Autoimmune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland
Hypercalcemia Abnormally high concentration of calcium circulating in the blood instead of being stored in the bones and teeth
Hyperglycemia Abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood
Hyperinsulinism Excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream
Hyperpituitarism Excess secretion of growth hormone that causes acromegaly and gigantism
Hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis) Overproduction of thyroid hormones
Insulin Secreted in response to high levels of glucose in the bloodstream
Insulinoma Benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin
Interstitial Cell-Stimulating Hormone (ICSH) Stimulates ovulation and secretion of testosterone
Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy Minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove one or both adrenal glands
Leptin Protein hormone secreted by fat cells that is involved in the regulation of appetite
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Stimulates ovulation and the secretion of testosterone
Myxedema (Adult hypothyroidism) caused by an extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion
Norepinephrine Plays an important role in the "fight or flight" response by raising blood pressure, strengthening the heartbeat, and stimulating muscle contractions
Oxytocin Stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth
Pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas
Parathyroidectomy Surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands
Pituitary Adenoma Pituitary tumor such as functioning and nonfunctioning
Polydipsia Excessive thirst
Polyphagia Excessive hunger
Polyuria Excessive urination
Prediabetes Blood sugar is higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes
Progesterone Hormone released during the second half of the menstrual cycle by the corpus luteum in the ovary
Prolactinoma Benign tumor of the pituitary gland
Puberty Process of physical changes by which a child's body becomes an adult body that is capable of reproducing
Radioactive Iodine Treatment Oral administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells
Steroids Large family of hormone-like substances that share the same fat-soluble chemical structure
Testosterone Steroid hormone secreted by the testicles and the adrenal cortex to stimulate the development of male secondary sex characteristics
Thymectomy Surgical removal of the thymus gland
Thymitis Inflammation of the thymus gland
Thymosin Stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells
Thyroxine (T4) One of the primary thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of many body systems
Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) caused by deficiency of thyroid secretion
Hypoglycemia Abnormally low concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood
Created by: ebryzgornia