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Renal Exam 1: Part 1

Introduction Chapter

QuestionAnswer
Who recognized Kidneys? Did he say they were regulatory or excretory? Starling 1900,Said they were regulatory
What is the excretory function of the kidneys? Regulate composition and volume of body fluids.
What are 7 functions of the kidneys? Regulation of body fluid osmolality and volume, electrolyte balance, acid-base balanceExcretion of metabolic products and foreign substancesProduction and secretion of hormonesRole in calcium homeostatsisAdaptation to nephron loss
T/F Kidneys control both the osmolality and volume of body fluids true
why control body fluid osmolality? maintain cell volumeCarry on normal cardiovascular function
How do the kidneys control osmolality? by regulating the excretion of water and NaCl
T/F The CV system and CNS integrate the kidney's function True
What are some inorganic ions that the kidneys regulate? Organic? INorganic-Na,K, Cl, HCO3, H, Ca, P/Organic-excretion of citrate or succinate
What is a process of separating wastes from body fluids and eliminating them? Excretion
What must happen with the excretion of electrolytes to maintain balance? excretion must be balanced w/ daily intake
what will happen if intake exceeds excretion? amount of a given electrolyte increases
what is the sole or primary route for excretion? kidneys
How is body fluid pH maintained w/in very narrow limits? by buffers w/in the body and coordinated action of the lungs and kidneys
what are the metabolic end products that the body no longer needs called? What excretes them? Metabolic wastes; kidneys
What are some examples of metabolic wastes? AA-Urea(50% of N products)Nuclic acid-uric acid: phosph-creatine to creatine, metabolites of hormones, hemoglobin end products
what rate are the metabolic wastes excreted? rate that matches their production b/c concentrations are maintained at a constant level.
What are 3 examples of foreign substances eliminated by the kidneys? Chemicals in food, herbicides and insecticides, and drugs
What happens with metabolic wastes if kidney function is compromised? metabolic wastes and foreign substances accumulate
Do kidney's produce hormones? are they an endocrine organ? Yes and yes
What hormones does the kidney produce and secrete? Renin, Calcitrol(VitaminD), Erythropoeitin
What is renin? not really a hormone but a protelytic enzyme used to produce an enzymeIt is a precursor
What does renin do? It converts to Angiotensin and is part of the Aldosterone systemIt Regulates BP via Na/K balance
What is the function of Calcitrol? normal reabsoption: Ca by GI tract decreases for bone deposition
What happens to calcitrol in renal disease? Production is impaired and levels are reduced. Ca is reabosbed by intestine and then there are abnormalities in bone formation
What is ESRD and when is it seen? End Stage Renal Disease and seen in people w/ a GSR<10% or normal
What must be done w/ people who have ESRD? Renal replacement --> peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, renal transplant
What is the function of EPO? Stimulates RBC formation by the bone marrow to control oxygen carrying capacity of blood. IT determines the RBC count.
What happens to EPO in kidney disease? production and secretion is reduced and Anemia can be seen w/ CRF
What do kidneys release to regulate hormonal production and secretion? Renalase which inactivates catacholamines to regulate BP
Do kidneys respond to homeostatic needs? yes
What is the range that urinary volume may vary? 0.5-18 L/day
What number can urine be diluted to? Concentrated to? diluted-50mOsm/Lconcentrated-1200mOsm/L
Are the urinary system and reporductive system closely associated? yes
In what animals does the urigenital system occur? What does this system mean? animals and menmeans the urethra serves as a passage for both urine and sperm
What is waste? substance that is useful to the body or may be present in excess of body's needs
What is a waste substance produced by the body? What are are 2 toxic examples? Metabolic WasteNitrogenous Wastes(ammonia, urea, uric acic, creatine)Non-nitrogenous waste (CO2)
what is a bi-product of protein catabolism? Urea
How is Urea formed? proteins->AA->removal of -NH2 groupNH2 group->ammonia->urea
what does uric acid form from? nucleic acid
What causes Azotemia? accumulation of nitrogenous wastes in blood.
What does Azotemia turn into? uremia
What happens after Uremia is reached? Uremia->convulsion->coma->death
what does renal failure require? Hemodialysis (replaces kidey's job to rid waste and puts blood back into body)
What is the normal urine production per day? 1-2 L/day
What is Polyuria/divresis? >2 L/day of urine
What is Oliguria? <500 ml/day of urine
What is Anuna? no urine due to kidney disease, dehydration, or prostate enlargement
What is normal urine output per day? 0-100 ml/day
At what number is urine output too low to where the body can't maintain a safe low concentration of wast in the blood (Azotemia) <400 ml/day
Why do we care about Kidneys? Ohh yeah, we don't!!! :)
Created by: SparkleBabies on 2009-04-02



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