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Exam2- china

China & East Asian Historical Geography

Dynasties of China 1. Shang (Yin)1a. Zhou Dynasty2. Qin (Chin)3.Han Dynasty4.Sui Dynasty5. Tang Dynasty6. Song Dynasty7. Yuan Dynasty(Mongols)8. Ming Dynasty9. Manchu Dynasty
1.Shang Dynasty1a. 1770 BC to 1120 BC1a. 1120 BC to 221 BC
Qin (Chin) Dynasty -221 to 207 BC-move Chinese influence southward toward Chang Jiang and Xi Rivers-established bureaucratic system for governing China
Han Dynasty -207 BC to 220 AD- brought unity and stability and enlarged Chinese sphere of influence of Korea, Mongolia, Xinjiang, and SE Asia-silk trade to Europe-The people of the Han
Successive Dynasties-Sui Dynasty-Tang Dynasty -581 to 618 AD-618 to 907 AD
Song Dynasty -960-1279 AD-Great Empire-world's most advance state at time
Yuan Dynasty (Mongols) - 1279 to 1368-Nomadic people for the North-Kublai Khan and Ghengis Khan-Empire from Korea to Eastern Europe-Marco Polo
Ming Dynasty -1368 to 1644-Restored Chinese rule-became mose powerful state ever in China's history-Artistic and Scientific achievement
Manchu (Qing) Dynasty -1644 to 1911-last and largest dynasty-Manchus (Manchuria)-Mongols & Manchurians adopted Chinese culture & civilization
Collapse of the Manchus A. Opium Trade-England traded Opium in China--hurt Chinese Society-First Opium War 1839 to 1842 *China tried to stop Opium Trade
Spheres of Influence in China & Quasicolonization in China -Hong Kong--British-Shangdong Province--Germans-Indochina--France-Northeast--Russia-Macao--Portugal-Korea & Taiwan--Japan
Russo-Japan War -1904-Russia fought Japan over influence in North Pacific & Northeast China
Boxer Rebellion -1910-Chinese rebellion against foreigners-believed bullets didn't hurt them-rebellions led by Mystics-1911--Manchu Dynasty overthrown by Sun Yatsen
Warlordism -1920s-China broke-up into smaller states run by military governors/warlords-1912--Sun Yat-sen quit President in Bejing to form government in Canton(Guangzhou) * Two forces in China
KMT- (Kuomintang) -nationalists-led by Sun Yat-sen formed a government in Canton *died in 1925 *Chiang Kai-Shek becomes leader
Communist Party -founded in 1921 in Shanghai
Chaing Kai-Sek -leader of nationalist party-captured Bejing in 1928 -made Nanking (Nanjing) the capital of China
The Long March -communist march into inferior from 1934 to 1935-Led by Mao Zedong & Deng Xiaoping-KMT tried to destroy them
War with Japan -1937 to 1945-Japan invaded and fought the nationalists-Chiang Kai-Sek was leader of China-Japan captured Northern and Eastern China
Chinese Civil War -1945 to 1949-Nationalists had one of world's largest and best equipped armies *still lost
WHY- Nationalists lost Civil War 1. war with Japan weakened2. lost public support3. mishandled economy--rapid inflation4. lost major battles--many died
People's Republic of China -September 1949- Chiang Kai-Shek & army fled to Taiwan *December 1949
Communist Dynasty -Immediately began transforming China * Agricultural Reform * Second Industrialization
(PRC) People's Republic of China -CCP & PLA-population~ 1.3 billion-most live in East-offically Atheist-Mandarin Chinese
Ethnicity- China -1.3 billion-92% Han Chinese-8% ethnic minorities
Religions- China -Atheist-Christians~3-4%-Muslim, Buddhists, Taoists~2%-Churches are sanctioned by government-Buddhism~influenced by Confucianism & Taoism= traditional religion of China-Roman Catholic Churches are ILLEGAL
Languages- China -Mandarin*based on Bejing dialect *offical language *other dialects: Cantonese & Shanghaiese
Taiwan -were the Nationalists fled to in 1949-Republic of China (ROC)
Fulun Dafa/Fulun Gong Movement -outlawed-founded by Li Hongzhi-meditation technique done for relaxation, spiritual peace, enlightenment *health, fitness, wisdom-declared illegal in 1999 after 10000 people peacefully demonstrated against government harassment
Mao Zedong -led China from 1949 to 1976
Government controlled cities- China 1. Bejing (Peking) capital2.Tianjin--Port City of Bejing3.Shanghai largest city of China
Autonomous Regions (AR)- China 1. Nei Mongol AR2. Ningxia Hui AR3. Xingjiang Uygur AR4. Guangxi Zhuang AR5. Xizang AR (Tibet) *areas of Han Chinese migration
Regional- China -Eastern Lowlands-Chang Basin-Chang Jiang (Yangtze) River-Nanjing-Wuhan-Grand Canal-Yangtze Delta-North China Plain-Sichuan Basin
Chang Basin-China -Chang Jiang River-navigable for Ocean going vessels to Nanjing & Wuhan-other large ships to Chonqqing in Sichuan Basin-Grand Canal--link Yangtze to rice & wheat production in North
Shanghai-China -former British Treaty Port City-Yangtze Delta~ Hinterland of 50 million people & industrial complex
North China Plain -cooler temperatures-wheat-soybeans-corn-fruit-vegetables-Bejing & Tianjin
Shaanxi & Sichuan-China -Sichuan Basin~population cluster-City of Xian in Shaanxi-coal & oil preserves
The South- China -Guangdong Province-city of Guangzhou (Canton)-economic growth & ethnic minorities
Northeast- China -home of Manchus-Japanese Civilization-Called Northeast for geopolitical reasons-Japanese call~Manchukuo-Pu Yi"Last emperor"~ emperor of Manchukuo-Colonization 1931 to 1932 & 1945-Japan industrialized the region-Railroads & Factories
Northeast- China CONTINUED -1950s to 1970s it led China in industrialization (Natural Resources)
Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongolia) AR -transition zone-Mongols are minorities in own AR-5 million Mongols-10 million Non-Mongols-China sent people to make more Chinese
Xinjiang Uygur (Sinkiang) AR -Northwest region-Ethnic Groups *Turkic & Non-Turkic *Tajiks *Uygurs *Kazakhs *Kyrgyz-Chinese Muslims- Frontier region of China- Space & Nuclear Weapons Program
Xizang (Tibet) AR -Chinese Colony-Different culture & different ethnic group-China invaded during 1950s after war-1958 China brutally suppressed Tibetans-Tibetans~ Buddhists-Dalai Lama~in exile-feudal society organized around monasteries who paid allegiance~ DL
Population- China -BR~2.1 to avoid decline-BR~2.1-5 for growth-BR~5-over is explosive-Birthrate 13/1000-Pop. Growth~0.57%-1979~ One couple/ one child policy-mid 80s was relaxed in rural areas to 2 children
Created by: MindyAnn