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Module 4

Heme 2 -- Chapter 30 FINAL Review

Antiserum Serum that contains antibodies to a specific antigen used to perform blood typing
Agglutination Antigen-antibody reaction which involves clumping of cells due to the antibody attaching itself to the antigen
Blood urea nitrogen Kidney function indicator test which measures the amount of nitrogen in the blood
Analyte Any substance that is being chemically analyzed
Homeostasis State of equilibrium within the body when the body systems are functioning normally
Lipoprotein Simple protein, bound to fat, that transports lipids in the blood
Triglycerides Fat found in the blood stream that is often stored as adipose tissue
Antibody Particle produced in response to an antigen for the purpose of neutralizing or destroying that antigen
Bilirubin Orange-yellow pigment produced from the breakdown of RBCs that is secreted in the bile
Cholesterol Major component of bile made in the liver
Antigen Substance that stimulates antibody production within the body
Hypoglycemia Term for decrease in blood glucose levels
Hyperglycemia Term for increase in blood glucose levels
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Fraction of cholesterol that carries and deposits lipids in the arteries and other body tissues (BAD)
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Good cholesterol
Human Chorionic Gonadotrpin (HCG) Hormone produced by the placenta in pregnant females
FBS (test) Normal value -- 70-110 mg/dL; diagnose and manage diabetes
BUN (test) 8-25 mg/dL; evaluate kidney function
HbA1c (test) 4.5-6.5; indicates blood glucose control over the past 3 months
Creatinine (test) 0.4-1.5 mg/dL; renal function test
Total Cholesterol (test) less than 200 mg/dL (same in men and women)
HDL (test) Males: 37-70 mg/dL; Females: 40-85 mg/dL
LDL (test) less than 130 mg/dL (same in men and women)
Triglycerides (test) 20-180 mg/dL (same in men and women)
Tests used to determine risk for coronary artery disease Total cholesterol; HDL; LDL and triglycerides
Three types of diabetes Type 1 (diabetes mellitus); Type 2 (diabetes insipidous); Gestational diabetes
Type 1 (diabetes mellitus) Juvenile onset usually diagnosed by age 25; insulin dependent since the body fails to produce any insulin on its own
Type 2 (diabetes insipidous) Adult onset usually after age 40; often regulated by diet and exercise; may result in need for medicine to regulate since there is insulin resistance (tissues and cells reject body's own insulin)
Gestational diabetes Begins during pregnancy during 2nd or 3rd trimester; usually subside after delivery but can be an indicator for type 2 diabetes later on in life
Three possible appearances of serum Icteric; Lipemic and Hemolyzed
Icteric Deep yellow-orange color due to presense of bilirubin
Lipemic Milky/cloudy color due to presence of lipids (fats); could indicate coronary heart disease (CHD) or lipid metabolism disorder
Hemolyzed Pink/red color due to processing errors, hemolytic disease or hemolysis (destruction of RBCs) has occured
Plasma Liquid portion of whole blood minus formed elements (RBCs, WBCs, Thrombocytes)
Serum Liquid portion of plasma once solutes (proteins, lipids, gases, glucose, electrolytes) have settled after centrifuging
Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) Screening test for syphillis
In blood typing, if a patient's blood has a positive reaction (clumps) when Anti-B serum is added, what blood type is the patient? Type B
If blood glucose test results are 140 mg/dL what is indicated? Hyperglycemia since values are higher than normal range
What test should be performed regularly for a Pt on anticoagulant therapy (blood thinners)? PT/INR
If hemostasis is disrupted what might occur? Increase or decrease in related chemicals or hormones
What are necessary components of laboratory test methods? Record keeping, QC and QA
What special procedures is required when drawing arterial blood gases? Specimen must be put on ice
Three tests you would see in a hepatic profile Total and direct bilirubin, ALT., AST.
What test would be used to determine the damage to muscle related to Pt with symptoms of MI and increased CPK? CPK-MB
Before collecting a specimen for FBS (fasting blood sugar), what should you confirm first? Pt has fasted for 8-12 hours otherwise test results will mean nothing
Before beginning GTT, the Pt should… Eat diet high in carbs 3 days prior, fast and refrain from smoking after midnight prior to testing
When administering a glucose supplement during a GTT you should… test fasting specimen prior to administering glucose supplement, chill glucose supplement and determine flavor preference
Symtoms of hypoglycemia Headache, senseless speech, perspiration and irrational behavior
Possible condition related to decreased amylase (enzyme for breaking up carbs) Cirrhosis
Tumor marker for colorectal cancer CEA
Most common cause of peptic ulcers Helicobacter pylori
What determines a persons blood type Antigens
In blood typing, what reaction takes places when you combine antigen on red cells with antibody of test serum? Agglutination -- clumping of red cells
A positive result of drug testing must be Confirmed using more precise tests
Chain of custody Ensures validity of a specimen for drug testing
Type A Antigen "A"; Antibody "B"
Type B Antigen "B"; Antibody "A"
Type AB Antigen "A" & "B"; No Antibody present
Type O No Antigens present; Both Antibody "A" & "B"
Created by: monkmaroni