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Module 4

A&P 2 -- Chapter 17-18 Female Rep. System & OB Test

Gynecology Study of diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system
Gynecologist Physician who specializes in the study of a woman
Coitus/Copulation Sexual intercourse/union between 2 people of the opposite sex
External genitalia Vulva
Mons pubis Fatty tissue that covers and cushions symphysis pubis; covered with triangular patch of hair after puberty
Labia majora Located on either side of the vaginal opening, extending from the mon pubis to perineum
Labia minora Two thin folds of tissue located within the folds of the labia majora
Bartholin's Gland Located on either side of the vagina orifice; secretes a fluid substance that lubricates the vagina
Clitoris Vaginal erectile tissue, located just beneath the upper junction of the labia majora; produces sexual arousal when stimulated
Urinary Orifice/Meatus Located just above vaginal orifice
Vestibule Opening to urethra, vagina and Bartholin's gland (flooring)
Vaginal Orifice Located in lower part of vestibule below the urinary meatus
Perineum Located between vaginal orifice and anus
Internal Genitalia Vagina, Uterus, Ovaries
Vagina Muscular tube that connects the uterus with the vulva; rests between bladder and rectum; stretchable fold of inner lining (rugae) which expands during childbirth to allow baby to pass through
Uterus Pear-shaped hollow muscular organ behind bladder and in front of rectum; source of monthly menstrual flow
3 Portions of Uterus Fundus (small dome-shaped upper portion), Body (central portion), Cervix (narrower, neck-like portion at lower end)
Wall of the Uterus (3 layers) Perimetrium (outermost layer), Myometrium (middle muscular layer), Endometrium (inner most layer which shed during menses)
Graafian Follicle Ruptures/shoots out ova as first stage of ovulation; ova mature here under influence of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
Fallopian Tubes Also known as Uterine Tubes or Oviducts; serve as passageways for ova as they exit ovary en route to uterus
Fimbriae Finger-like projections that draw the ovum into tubes through wave-like motions when ovum is released from ovary and fertilization takes place
1st Stage of Ovulation Ova shoots out of ovary and into fallopian tube
2nd Stage of Ovulation Ovum is released from ovary and fimbriae draw ovum into tubes
3rd Stage of Ovulation Fertilization of ovum takes place
Ovaries Primary sex organ of the female; almond-shaped pair held in place by ligaments; produce gametes (sex cells); responsible for production of estrogen and progesterone
Estrogen Responsible for secondary sex characteristics of female -- breasts, hips, pubic and axillary hair
Progesterone Responsible for sustaining pregnancy should fertilization occur
Mammary Glands Responsible for milk production and located on anterior chest wall over pectoral muscles
Areola Darker pigmented area surrounding the nipple; contain Montgomery tubercles (small sebaceous glands) that are active during pregnancy
Nipple Center of breast that consists of erectile tissue
Internal Tissues of the Breast Adipose (outer edges/fatty tissue), Connective (supports adipose tissue), Glandular (glands that radiate outward around the nipple)
Female Pelvis (4 parts) Sacrum, Coccyx, Pubic Bone, Ischial Spine
Pelvimetry Measuring across pelvic outlet from varying angle to determine size for passage of fetus
Puberty Period of life marking ability to reproduce; female repr. organs fully developed along with secondary sex characteristic changes taking place
Menstrual Phase Days 1 to 5 -- menstrual flow occurring day 1 and lasts 3-5 days
Post-menstrual Phase Days 6 to 12 -- Interval between menses and ovulation
Ovulatory Phase Days 13 to 14 -- Graafian follicle releases ova
Pre-menstrual Phase Days 15 to 28 -- time frame between ovulatory phase and onset of menstrual flow
Obstetrics (OB) Field of medicine that focuses on pregnancy (prenatal), delivery of baby and the first 6 weeks after delivery (postpartum)
Obstetrician Physician who specializes in the care of a woman during pregnancy, delivery and 6 weeks following delivery
Perinatologist Physician who specializes in care for a mother and fetus with greater risk of complications
Risk factors for pregnant mother Hypertension, diabetes, Autoimmune disorders, etc.
Risk factors for fetus Triplets or greater, abnormalities discovered during pregnancy
Pregnancy Duration 40 weeks/9-10 months/3 trimesters
Which trimesters present greatest risk to fetus and or mother? 1st and 3rd Trimesters
Fertilization (conception) Union of sperm and mature ovum
Zygote Initial name of fertilized ovum as it travels down to the uterus for implantation
Embryo Name given during 2nd-8th week of pregnancy after implanting in the uterus
Fetus Name given during 9th week through duration of gestational period
Two Major Accessory Structures of Pregnancy Amniotic Sac and Placenta
Amniotic Sac (fetal membrane) Strong thin walled membranous sac that envelopes and protects growing fetus
Placenta Temporary organ of pregnancy that provide respirations, nutrition and oxygen to fetus
Maternal Side of Placenta Attached to wall of uterus and has beefy red color
Fetal Side of Placenta Shiny, slightly gray-ish appearance that contains arteries and veins
Contractions Period of tightening and relaxing of uterine muscle
Labor Process of fetus and placenta leaving the uterus
Striae Stretch marks
Linea Nigra Dark line extending from fundus to symphysis pubis during pregnancy
Hysterectomy Surgical removal of uterus
Braxton Hicks Irregular contractions -- false labor
Chadwick's Sign Blueish-violet hue to cervix and vagina
Goodwell's Sign Softening of the cervix felt by examiner
Hegar's Sign Softening of lower segment of uterus
Quickening First feeling of movement by expectant mother from 18-20 weeks
Lightening Fetal head settles into the pelvis a few weeks prior to onset of labor
Eclampsia Most severe form of hypertension during pregnancy (seizures present)
Chloasma Tan or brown patches on forehead, cheeks and nose during pregnancy "mask of pregnancy"
Amenorrhea Absence of menstruation
Ballottement Technique that causes fetus to bounce within amniotic fluid, examiner feels it rebound quickly
Created by: monkmaroni