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Math Semester Exams

Chapter 1 numerical expression an expression that consists of numbers and operations
variable a letter that is used to represent one or more numbers
variable expression an expression that consists of numbers, variables, and operations
evaluate to find the value of the variable expressions by substituting a number for each variable, and then finding the value
base the number or expression that is used as a factor in a repeated multiplication
exponent a number or expression that shows how many times a base is used as a factor in a repeated multiplication
order of operations a set of rules for evaluating an expression involving more than one operation
integer the numbers... -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3,... consisting of the negative integers, zero, and the positive integers
negative integer the integers less than zero
positive integer the integers that are greater than 0
absolute value a number a is its diameter from 0 on a number line
origin the point (0,0) where the x-axis and the y-axis meet in a coordinate plane
ordered pair a pair of numbers (x,y) that be used to represent a point in a coordinate plane
Chapter 2 term the parts of an expression that are added together
coefficent the number of a term with a variable
constant term a term that has a number but no variable
like terms terms that have identical variable parts
equation a mathematical sentence formed by placing an equal sign, =, between two expressions
inverse operations two operations that undo each other
Chapter 3 inequality a mathematical statement formed by placing an inequality symbol between two expressions
solution of an inequality the set of all numbers that produce true statements when substituted for the variable in the inequality
Chapter 4 prime number a whole number greater than 1 that has exactly two whole number factors, 1 and itself
composite number a whole number greater than that has more than two whole number factors
monomial a number, a variable, or the product of a number and one or more variables raised to whole number powers
common factor a whole number that is a factor of two or more nonzero whole numbers
relatively prime two or more nonzero whole numbers whose greatest common factor is 1
equivalent fractions two fractions that represent the same number
simplest form (as a fraction) a fraction is in simplest form when its numerator and denominator are relatively prime
multiple the product of a number and any nonzero whole number
scientific notation a number is written in scientific notation if it has the form cx10n
Chapter 5 rational number a number that can be written as a quotient of two integers
terminating decimal a decimal that has a final digit repeating decimal
repeating decimal a decimal that has a digit or block of digits that repeats without end
reciprocals two nonzero numbers whose product is 1
multiplicative inverse the product of a number and its multiplicative inverse is 1
Chapter 6 ratio a comparison of two numbers using division
proportion an equation that states that two ratios are equal
similar figures figures that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size. Corresponding angles of similar figures are congruent, and the ratios of the lengths of corresponding sides are equal
corresponding parts a pair of sides or angles that have the same relative position in two figures
congruent figures figures that have the same shape and the same size. Corresponding angles and sides of congruent figures are congruent
scale a ratio that gives the relationship between the dimensions of a scale drawing or a scale model and the actual dimensions of the object
favorable outcomes outcomes that correspond to a specified event
probability a number from 0 to 1 that measured the likelihood that an event will occur
odds in favor when all outcomes are equally likely, the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the number of unfavorably outcomes is called the odds in favor of an event
odds against when all outcomes are equally likely, the ratio of the number of unfavorable outcomes to the number of favorable outcomes is called odds against an event
Chapter 7 percent a ratio whose denominator is 100. The symbol for percent is %
markup the increase from the wholesale price of an item to the retail price
discount the decrease from the original price of an item to the sale price
interest the amount earned or paid for the use of money
principal an amount of money that is deposited or borrowed
balance the sum of the principal and all interest earned
Chapter 8 relation a pairing of numbers in one set with numbers in another set
domain the set of all possible inputs for the relation
range the difference of the greatest value and the least value in a data set
input a number in the domain of a relation
output a number in the range at a relation
function a relation with the property that for each input there is exactly one output
linear equation an equation whose graph is a line
function form an equation in x and y is in function form if it is solved for y
x-intercept the x-coordinate of a point where a graph crossed the x-axis
y-intercept the y-coordinate of a point where a graph crosses the y-axis
slope a nonvertical line is the ratio of the rise to the run between any two points on the line
slope-intercept form the form of a linear equation y=mx+b where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept
solution of a linear system an ordered pair is a solution of each equation in the system
Chapter 9 square root a number n is a number m such that m2=n
perfect square a number that is the square of an integer
radical expression an expression that involves a radical sign
simplest form of a radical expression a radical expression is in simplest form when (1) no factor of the expression under the radical sign is a perfect square other than 1, and (2) there are no fractions under the radical sign and no radical sign in the denominator of any fraction
hypotenuse the side of a right triangle that is opposite the right angle
leg the sides of a right triangle that form the right angle
Pythagorean Theorem for any right triangle, the sum of the squares of the lengths a and b of the legs equals the square of the length c of the hypotenuse.
irrational number a number that cannot be written as a quotient of two integers. The decimal form of an irrational number neither terminates nor repeats
real number the set of all rational number and irrational numbers
Chapter 10 polygon a closed plane figure who sides are segments that interest only t their endpoints
pentagon a 5-sided polygon
hexagon a 6-sided polygon
heptagon a 7-sided polygon
octagon a 8-sided polygon
quadrilateral a 4-sided polygon
trapezoid a quadrilateral with exactly 1 pair of parallel sides
parallelogram a quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel
rhombus a parallelogram with 4 congruent sides
Created by: VickieJ10