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Module 3

Heme 1 -- Chapter 9 Lymphatic System Test Review

Lymphatic System has two major functions: Filtration and Immunity -- transport fluids and control/destroy microorganisms
Lymphatic System consists of: Lymph Fluid; Lymph Vessels; Lymph Nodes; Thymus; Spleen and Tonsils
How does the Lymphatic System differ from the Cardiovascular System? Lymphatic System does not form a closed circuit. It originates in the intercellular spaces of the soft tissue and transport fluid in only one direction -- away from tissues towards the thoracic cavity
Smallest Lymphatic Vessels are: Lymphatic Capillaries that originate in tissue spaces as blind ended sacs (scoops)
Lymphatic Capillaries Pick up/scoop up interstitial fluid and return it to blood vessels for general circulation and help prevent edema
What is the purpose of valves in the Lymphatic Vessels? Prevent back-flow of fluids or lymph
When Lymphatic Vessels merge with larger vessels they form... Lymphatic Ducts -- Right Lymphatic Duct and Thoracic Duct
Right Lymphatic Duct transports lymph drainage from the... Right side of the head, neck, right upper extremities and right side of the chest.
Thoracic Duct transports lymph drainage from the... Remaining regions of the body.
Where does the Right Lymphatic Duct drain into? Right Subclavion Vein
Where does the Thoracic Duct drain into? Left Subclavion Vein
What are lymph nodes? Are a collection of lymphatic tissue; also known as lymph glands
4 major concentrations of lymph nodes: 1. Cervical (neck); 2. Mediastinal (space btn the lungs/sternum); 3. Axillary (armpits); 4. Inguinal (groin)
What two processes happen as lymph passes through lymph nodes? 1. Old dead cells and bacteria are filtered to prevent them from emptying into blood vessels; 2. Macrophages engulf and destroy bacteria which are then filtered out.
What are Macrophages? Phagotcytes specific to the lymphatic system to engulf and destroy bacteria and are found in the liver, spleen, lungs, brain and spinal cord
Phagocytosis Process for engulfing and destroying bacteria.
What do lymph nodes produce that are important to immunity? Antibodies and Phagocytes
2 organs composed of lymphatic tissue are: Spleen and Thymus
Functions of the Spleen: Destruction of old RBCs by marophages; filter microorganisms/foreign material from blood; activate lymphocytes as it filters antigens from blood; activate B-cell lymphocytes to produce antibodies; store blood (RBCs and platelets)
Function of the Thymus: Large in fetal life but becomes smaller with age; composed of nest of lymphoid cells (stroma); aids the body's ability to protect itself (especially in early life)
Stroma Connective tissue that provides framework of an organ -- rather than carry out a function
Immune System Body's special defense response against foreign organisms
Lymphoid organs of the immune system: Lymph nodes; Spleen; Thymus; their products -- lymphocytes, antibodies and macrophages
Immunity Body's ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins
Natural immunity Genetic predisposition present at birth; not dependent on previous contact with infectious agent; phagocytic cells for natural immunity; macrophages move in to clear out dead cells and debris; Natural Killer Cells
Natural Killer (NK) Cells Primitive lymphocytes that destroy tumor cells and virally infected cells.
Acquired Immunity (Active and Passive) Body develops powerful, specific immunity (antibodies and cells) against invading agents.
Acquired Active Immunity Having an infection; Vaccination; Transfer of immune cells from a donor
Vaccination Contains modified pathogen or toxin that stimulates lymphocytes to produce antibodies without actually having the disease.
Acquired Passive Immunity Antitoxins (think snake bite); Immunoglobins (injected to lessen severity and protect); Maternal antibodies (passed through placenta)
Two major disease fighters for immune system: 1. B-Cell Lymphocytes; 2. T-Cell Lymphocytes
Humoral Immunity B-Cell Lymphocytes transform into plasma cells in response to specific antigen; secrete antibodies called immunoglobins
Immunoglobins we should know: IgA; IgD; IgE; IgG; and IgM
2 special Immunoglobins to know: IgE -- important in causing allergic reactions and fighting parasitic infections; IgG -- MOST ABUNDANT and crosses placenta for immunity in newborns.
Cell Mediated Immunity Immune response involving T-Cell Lymphocytes; antigens are destroyed by direct action of cells as opposed to antibodies.
T-Cell lymphocytes Originate from stem cells in the bone marrow and are processed in the thymus gland; multiply rapidly to destroy antigens; act as supressors to inhibit B and T-cells.
Types of T-Cells (3): 1. Cytotoxic Cells (T8-cells); 2. Cytokines; 3. Helper Cells (T4-cells)
Cytotoxic Cells (T-8) Act directly on antigens to destroy them
Cytokines (interferons and interleukins) Aid other cells in antigen destruction
Helper Cells (T4-cells) Cornerstone/keystone of our immunity; Promotes antibody production by B-cells and stimulates cytotoxic T-cells.
Afferant vs Efferant Afferent = IN; Efferant = OUT
Hemolysis Destruction of blood
Hemolytic activity in the spleen Destruction of RBCs which liberates hemoglobin, which is then converted to bilirubin in the liver then released to the blood stream -- recycling nutrients
Created by: monkmaroni