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Digestive System 1.

organs and functions

6 steps of the process of digestion (1-3) 1. ingestion: taking food into the digestive track 2. propulsion: food moves through alimentary canal. includes swallowing and peristalsis. waves of contraction and relaxation. 3. mechanical digestion: food is prepared for chem digestion
6 steps of the process of digestion (4-6) 4. chemical digestion: complex food particles broken down by enzymes 5. absorption: end products move from lumen through mucosal cells 6. defication: eliminates indigestable substances from body
Peristalsis Progressive, wavelike contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary canal
Mesentary Double layered extensions of the peritoneum that support most organs in the abdominal cavity
Mouth begins digestive process-- lips, cheeks, palate, uvula, palatoglossal arches, platopharangeal arches, fauces, tongue.
Bolus A rounded mass of food prepared by the mouth for swallowing
Teeth Incisors (8)-- cut/nip of pieces of food. Canines (4)-- tear, pierce. Premolars/Bicuspids (8)and Molars (12)-- grind, crush
Pharynx Involved in swallowing. the passage way that both air and foods are passed through
Esophagus Passageway to stomach.
Mastication Process of mechanically breaking down food.
Chyme Semi-fluid paste of food and gastric juice
Stomach Mixes food with gastric juice, initiates protein digestion, absorbs some nutrients. located in the upper left portion of abdominal cavity
Rugae Folds of the inner mucous membrane of organs, such as the stomach, that allow those organs to expand.
Pepsin A digestive enzyme that chemically digests, or breaks down, proteins into shorter chains of amino acids
Hydrochloric acid Helps turn the solid food into a liquid that makes digestion possible
Intrinsic factor a substance produced by the mucosa of the stomach and intestines that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12
Small intestine Completes digestion of chyme, absorbs nutrients, transports waste to large intestine. 1. duodenum (first 25cm), 2. jejunum, 3. ileum
Villi and Microvilli Microscopic projections which cover the intestine, greatly increasing the surface area and therefore, increasing the ability to absorb nutrients
Liver Carb, lipid, and protein metabolism. stores gycogen, iron, vitamins a d and b12
Gallbladder Stores bile which breaks down fat globules and enhances absorption of lipids and vitamins a d e and k
Bile salts Absorbed as whole molecules at the far end of the small intestine and pass up the portal vein to the liver, when they are re-secreted into bile.
Pancreas Secretes juices into the duodenum that contain enzymes that break down carbs, fats, proteins and nucleic acids.
Large intestine 1. ascending colon, 2. transverse colon, 3. descending colon, 4. sigmoid colon, 5. rectum.
Created by: usillygoose93