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OPT Genital

hypospadias abnormal opening of urethra on ventral side of penis; increased UTIs
epispadias abnormal opening of urethra on dorsal side of penis; increased UTIs and incontinence
carcinoma of the penis very rare in circumcised penises; associated with HPV
Bowen disease carcinoma in situ of the penis, very early form of cancer
cryptorchidism failure of the testes to drop
orchitis inflammation of the testes which are swollen and tender
seminomas cancer of the testes; remain localized, extremely radiosensitive and spread via lymphatics
nonseminomatous germ cell tumors testicular cancer that spreads earlier, less radiosensitive and spreads via bloodstream
prostatitis inflammation of the prostate, can be acute or chronic
bacterial prostatitis caused by same organisms as UTIs (E. coli)
nonbacterial prostatitis chronic inflammation with negative bacterial cultures
benign prostatic hyperplasia (nodular hyperplasia) enlargement of the prostate, often with urinary symptoms and UTIs
carcinoma of the prostate most common cancer in men; dysuria not immediate
prostate specific antigen (PSA) marker in management of prostate cancer but can be elevated in other benign conditions too
syphilis (lues) STD from spirochete Treponema pallidum; humans are only natural host
syphilitic reagin nonspecific antibody for syphilis; can be detected by VDRL and RPR
treponemal antibody specific antibody that requires more difficult but more accurate tests: FTA and MHATP
primary syphilis main lesion is a chancre on average 3 weeks after exposure; {serologic tests are usually positive by weeks 4-6}
secondary syphilis generalized lymph node enlargement with widespread mucocutaneous lesions, even on palms and soles; {all serologic tests are now positive}
mucous patches localized spongiotic mucositis, in mouth and vagina; seen in secondary syphilis
condyloma lata large, broad plaques in moist areas of skin
tertiary syphilis occurs in 1/3 of untreated syphilis patients after 5+ years; manifests in CNS and CV systems (aorta) -{this stage is much less infectious} -{nonspecific tests are negative but treponema antibody tests are positive for life}
tabes dorsalis spinal cord atrophy that produces loss of sensory feedback and ataxia
Argyll-Robertson pupil small pupils that are unresponsive to light due to optic nerve atrophy
gumma rubbery gray-white areas of necrosis, even in palate; from hypersensitivity to spirochete products and ischemia
congenital syphilis syphilis that is transmitted through the placenta: stillbirth, infantile and late (tardive) types
infantile syphilis infants that are born with or quickly develop secondary syphilitic lesions
late (tardive) congenital syphilis untreated congenital syphilis for 2 years: saber shins, saddle nose, mulberry molars
Hutchinson triad in congenital syphilis: interstitial keratitis, Hutchinson incisors and 8th nerve deafness
gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae- a Gram negative diplococcus; produces copious pus and is easily cultured
gonococcal opthalmia neonatorum blindness in infants from gonococcal contamination at birth
nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis most common STD, often from Chlamydia trachomatis
postgonococcal urethritis persistence of infection after treating gonorrhea; treat with ceftriaxone and doxycycline
genital herpes simplex (herpes genitalis) caused by herpes simplex virus, mostly simplex 2; small vesicles that quickly ulcerate
neonatal herpes HSV infection of newborn that is often fatal
human papillomavirus (HPV) cause of epithelial proliferations in genital tract
condyloma acuminatum caused by HPV 6 and 11 on mucocutaneous surfaces; malignant transformation is uncommon
carcinoma of the vulva most are squamous cell carcinomas, preceded by VIN
vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) precedes vulvar carcinoma, exhibits all degrees of dysplasia to Bowen disease
vaginitis inflammation of the vagina, often Candida albicans
cervicitis inflammation of the cervix, extremely common; may lead to cancer with HPVs
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) dysplasia that is a precursor to cervical carcinoma, typically asymptomatic
low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) dysplasia that should be carefully observed but most regress
high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) dysplasia that should be surgically excised, 10% progress to cancer
menorrhagia profuse or prolonged bleeding of uterus
metrorrhagia irregular bleeding between periods
endometriosis presence of endometrial glands in locations other than uterine lining; very painful
endometrial hyperplasia hyperplasia of epithelial lining of uterus secondary to excess estrogen relative to progestin
carcinoma of the endometrium arises from uterine lining from excess estrogens
leiomyomas benign tumors of smooth muscle, called fibroids in the uterus
leiomyosarcomas malignant tumors of smooth muscle, arise de novo and don't usually transform from leiomyomas
ovarian carcinoma wide variety of types of this cancer
ectopic pregnancy implantation of fertilized egg in any site other than the uterus, often in oviducts
gestational trophoblastic disease tumors that arise in cells that make the placenta that can be left after abortive pregnancy or following birth
hydatidiform moles benign lesions of gestational trophoblastic disease
invasive mole locally invasive lesion of gestational trophoblastic disease
choriocarcinoma very aggressive tumor of gestational trophoblastic disease
preeclampsia development of hypertension, proteinuria and edema in 3rd trimester from improper sinusoid formation of fetus
eclampsia convulsive seizures following preeclampsia; 'toxemia of pregnancy'
fibrocystic changes exaggeration and distortion of cyclic breast changes during menstrual cycle, most are benign
fibroadenoma most common benign tumor of the breast
carcinoma of the breast tumors of the breast gland and duct cells
peau d'orange thickened skin from blockage of lymph drainage by tumor
inflammatory carcinoma rapid growth of breast carcinoma can cause an acute inflammatory reaction with swelling, redness, and tenderness
Created by: Alexandra Arnold Alexandra Arnold