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McParland4 Science5

Fast Changes on Earth

What is a landslide? The quick downhill movement of loose rocks and soil
Name two causes of a landslide. 1. earthquake 2. heavy rains
What is Earth's crust? Earth's outermost layer
What are plates? huge pieces of Earth's crust that fit together like puzzle pieces
What are faults? Cracks in the crust at the edges of the plates
What is an earthquake? movement in the crust caused by a sudden shift of the plates
Where do most earthquakes happen? around the Pacific Ocean
Name three types of faults. 1. strike-slip 2. normal 3. reverse
What happens along a strike-slip fault? The plates slide past each other.
What happens along a normal fault? The plates pull apart. The part of the crust above the fault surface moves down.
What happens along a reverse fault? The plates push into each other. The part of the crust above the fault surface rises up.
What is a tsunami? a giant ocean wave
Name three things that can cause a tsunami. 1. underwater landslides 2. underwater volcanoes 3. underwater earthquakes
What is a volcano? a mountain build up around an opening in the crust
What is magma? melted rock below Earth's surface
Name three types of volcanoes. 1. cinder-cone 2. shield 3. composite
What shape is a cinder-cone volcano, and how is it formed? It is shaped like a cone with steep sides and a crater around the vent. It forms from explosions that release lava.
What shape is a shield volcano, and how is it formed? It has wide, almost flat sides. It forms from lava flowing from one or more openings.
What shape is a composite volcano, and how is it formed? It has a cone shape with layers of lava and ash. It forms by erupting two different ways that take turns: First it erupts quietly, releasing lava. Then it erupts explosively, releasing ash.
Where do many volcanoes form? at the edges of plates
Created by: carolynjohnson