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History Test 2

The Homeland Of Islam
Where was Islam originated? Arabian Peninsula
Inhabited by who? Nomadic Arabs
What's another name to call the Nomadic Arabs? The Bedouins
What were the important trade routes that located along? Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, etc.
What did they gave rise to? Large commercial cities
What did they herded? Sheep and camels
Where did they live? Lived in fiercely independent clans and tribes
What did they often engaged in? Violent wars with each other
There's a variety of what? Variety of gods and ancestors/ nature spirits
What did they valued? Valued personal bravery and group loyalty
What was Mecca known for? Major commercial city
What was the Site of the Kaaba? Most important religious shrine in Arabia
How many representations did they housed? About 360 deities
Who ruled the tribe of Mecca? The Quraysh
What did the Quraysh controlled? Controlled access to the Kaaba
What did the Quraysh gained? Gained wealth by taxing local trade
Arabia - Connections to the world
What did they participate in? Participations in long - distance trade
The locations was between what empires? The Byzantine Empire (to the northwest) and the Persian Empire (to the northeast)
What were the Results of the trading? Many jews, christians, and Zoroastrians lived among the Arabs in Arabia
What began to influenced the Arabs? Their monotheistic ideas began.
The Messenger
Who was the Messenger? Muhammad (570 - 632 CE)
Where was he born? Born in Mecca
From what family? From a Quraysh
What was he? He was a shepherd and a trader
What was happening around him? Troubled by the religious corruption and social inequalities of Mecca
What did the often withdrew? Often withdrew into the mountains to the meditate
What happen in 610 CE? He had an overwhelming religious experienced
Similar to what? Similar to the buddha and Jesus
What was he convince of? He was convinced that he was Allah's messenger to the Arabs
What did Muhammad claimed to be? Claimed to be the "seal of the prophets"
What did that claiming mean? Meant he was the last in a long line of prophets, including Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and others.
What did he say he had? He said he had God's FINAL revelation to humankind.
What wasn't he trying to do? Wasn't trying to start a new faith
What was the reality to it? More of an invitation to return to the old and pure religion of Abraham
The Message
When did Muhammad's revelations began? Muhammad's revelations began in 610 CE and continued for the next 22 years.
What was recorded in the Quran? The sacred scriptures of Islam
What was in the Monotheistic? Allah is the only god
What was him? All powerful creator
How was he? Good, Just, and Merciful
What did he reject? He rejected the other deities housed in the Kaaba.
What did he also reject? Rejected the Christian idea of the Trinity
What was the first thing that the Quran rejected? Hoarding of wealth and materialism
What was the second thing that the Quran rejected? Exploitation of the poor
What was the third thing that the Quran rejected? Corrupt business practices
What was the fourth thing that the Quran rejected? Neglecting widows and orphans
What was the last thing that the Quran rejected? Abuse of Women
What did the Quran demanded? Social Justice, Equality, and Aid to the poor.
What was the primary obligation of all beliebers? Submission to Allah
What did it involved? Not only and individual or spiritual act, but also involved the creation of a whole new society.
What is Umma? The community of all beliebers
What was Umma? Just and moral society of Islam
What about it? Would replace tribal, ethnic, or racial identities.
The message: 5 pillars of Islam
What about the first pillar? Faith: "There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of God"
What about the second pillar? Prayer: Should be performed 5 times daily while facing in the direction of Mecca.
What about the third pillar? Almsgiving: Supporting the poor and needy of the community.
What about the fourth pillar? Fasting: Occurs during month of Ramadan; no food, drink, or sexual relations from dawn to sundown.
What about the fifth pillar? The Hajj: Pilgrimage of Mecca
The message: The 6th Pillar
What was the 6th pillar referred to? Jihad="Struggle"
What did the "Greater Jihad" mean? Interior personal effort to avoid greed and selfishness, and to drive toward living a God-concious life.
What was the "Lesser jihad"? "Jihad of the sword"= belief that the Quran authorized armed struggle against the forces of unbelief and evil.
In order to what? In order to: establish Muslim rule and defend the Umma from the threats or infidel aggressors.
Transformation of Arabia
Who was attracted by Muhammad's message? Muhammad's message soon attracted opposition from Mecca's elite families.
What was the first thing that the Mecca's elite families didn't like about him? Claim to be the "messenger of Allah"
What was the second thing that the Mecca's elite families didn't like about him? Strict monotheism
What was the third thing that the Mecca's families didn't like about him? Call for Social reform
What was the fourth thing that the Mecca's families didn't like about him? Condemnation of business practices
What was the fifth thing that the Mecca's families didn't like about him? Disloyalty to his own tribe (the Quraysh)
What did it caused? Caused Muhammad and his followers to go off to Medina
What happen during that time? This is where Umma took shape
The Islamic Community
What was Muhammad during that time? Religious and political leader; also led the military
What happen to the Islamic Community? Expanded throughout Arabia
By what was expanded? Military conquest, Marriage alliances with leading tribes, and Voluntary conversion
What happen by 632? Muhammad's death and most of Arabia took over the Islamic Community.
Islamic Law
There was no distinction between what? Religious law and civil law
What was ONE LAW? The Sharia
What did it do? Regulated every aspect of life
European Christendom: Byzantine Empire
The Fall of the Roman Empire
What happened in 395 CE? Final division of Roman Empire into eastern and western halves.
What happened in 476? End of the western Roman Empire
Who remained intact? Eastern half remained intact= the Byzantine Empire (aka Byzantium)
Western Europe After Rome
What happened? Roads in disrepair, Cities falling apart, Central government broke down, Long distance trade stopped, and People moved to rural areas.
What was still dominant? Christianity still dominant=Roman catholicism
The Byzantine Empire
How was the government? Unified and centralized government
What was the capital? Capital= Constantinople
What was the religion? Eastern Orthodox Christianity
What was attempted? Attempted to preserve some elements of the Roman Empire
What did they enjoyed? Enjoyed many advantages that allowed it to stay intact, unlike the western Roman Empire
What were some advantages ? Wealthier and more urbanized, More defensible capital; Constantinople was walled in.
What were some other advantages? Shorter frontier to guard, Stronger army and navy, Strong leaders and clever diplomacy
Preservation of the Roman Empire
What were the Elements of the Roman Empire within Byzantium? Roads, Taxation System, Military structures, Centralized administration, Laws and court system, Roman- style robes and sandals.
But what happen ? A lot changed as well.
The Byzantine State
The byzantine state was never larges as the? As the Roman Empire
Reached it's largest size during the reign of? Emperor Justinian
Lost many territories due to what? Arab/Muslim expansion in the 7th century= Syria/Palestine, Egypt. and North Africa
What did they still controlled? The eastern Mediterranean, Greece, the balkans. and Anatolia
Political State of byzantine
Who was Empress Theodora? Justinian's wife
What was going on on the centralized authority in Constantinople? Emperor viewed as "God's earthly representative"
What was the imperial court filled with? Filled with grandeur, wealth, and court ceremonies.
What authority did the generals had within the provinces? Provinces within the empire ruled by generals who had civil authority and could raise their own armies
What did the government focused on? Focused on: Collecting taxes, maintaining order, and suppressing revolts.
What did not become heavily involved? Did not become heavily involved in the lives most people.
When did it start facing invasions? After 1085 CE
From whom? Catholic Crusaders from Western Europe and Turkic Muslims invaders
When did the empire officially fell? Empire officially fell when Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453
The byzantine Church
What was the Caesaropapism? Church and state were connected
What was different from the Western Europe? The Roman catholic Church was independent from optical authorities
What did the Emperor do? Emperor assumed roles of head of state and head of the Church.
What were other things that the emperor do? Appointed church leaders, Called church councils into session, Made decisions about religious doctrine/rule, Treated the church as government department.
What did the eastern Christianity provide? Provided a cultural identity for people within the byzantine Empire.
What was the empire filled with? Empire (especially Constantinople) filled with churches, relics of saints, and icons.
What were the icons? Religious painting of jesus, Mary, and other saints/holy figures.
How was the eastern orthodox related to the Roman Catholic Christianity? Eastern orthodox came from the roman empire originally, so it shares many common elements with Roman Catholic Christianity
What were some of the elements? Teachings of jesus, The bible, The sacrament,s A church hierarchy with patricians, bishops, and priest.
What were some other elements? Missionaries, and Intolerance toward other religions
What are some facts about the Eastern Orthodox? Byzantine empire, Greek, Priest grew long beards, priest could get married, Rejected the authority of the pope of rome.
What are some facts about the Roman Catholic? Western Europe, Latin, Priests shaves, priest=celibate, Accepted the Roman Pope as the Sole authority for Christians everywhere.
When did the further separation came between the Eastern orthodox church and Roman catholic church? 1054
What about both churches? Both churches excommunicated each other, Declared that those in the opposing christian tradition were not real christians.
Byzantium & the world
What did the byzantium face? Faced many threats from outsiders.
Who were the outsiders? Persian Empire, Arab armies/ the islamic world, Crusaders from Western Europe,
What was the biggest military weapon? "Greek fire"
What was the weapon like? Combination of oil soil, sulfur, and lime launched from bronze tubes, and worked like a flamethrower.
What was happening in Eurasia? Central player in long-distance trade of Eurasia.
By who were the products made? Products made by Byzantine craftspeople in high demand.
What were the products? Jewelry, Gemstones, Silver and gold work, Purple dyes, Linen, woolen, and silk textiles,
What about Aristotle? Significant cultural influence in the world.
What did he do? Preserved ancient Greek learning and transmitted it to the Islamic world and Western Europe.
What did he also do? Impacted scientist, Philosophers, theologians, and intellectuals.
What spread? Spread of Eastern Orthodox religion --> especially to Slavic - speaking peoples in the Balkans and Russia.
Who created the slavic alphabet? Cyril and Methodius
What did they called it? Cyrillic script
What was significant about their creation? Made it possible to translate the bible and other religious texts, and helped in mass conversion.
What was the alphabet called? Cyrillic Alphabet
Conversion of Russia
What was the Most significant expansion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity? To kievan Rus
When did it happen? Modern-day Ukraine and western Russia
What was the major city? Kiev
How was the society? Highly stratified society
By who was ruled? It was ruled by many different princes
Who was prince Vladimir? Prince of kiev
What about Prince Vladimir? Wanted to bring a new faith to Rus that would unify the many diverse people of the region.
What did also wanted to do? He also wanted to link Rus into wider networks of communication and exchange in the world.
Why was Prince Vladimir drawn to Eastern Orthodox Christianity? The splendor and wealth of Constantinople. and the beauty of eastern orthodox churches
What did he received as a result of this conversion? A sister of the byzantine emperor as a bride, Byzantine priest and advisors.
What did the kievan Rus adopted? Kievan Rus consequently adopted many byzantine cultural elements.
What were some of the elements? Architectural styles, Cyrillic alphabet, Use of icons, Monastic tradition stressing prayer and service, Idea of imperial/ state control of the church.