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When did Muhammad live? 570-632CE
Muhammad was from what tribe? Quraysh tribe
What did Muhammad say he had? Relevations of Allah through angel (610-632).
What is the Quran? Muhammad's collection of relevations:the direct word of Allah in Arabic.
What is the language of the Quarn? Arab
What happened to Muhammad? Fled from Mecca to Medina(622) due to resistance from Quraysh leadership.
What is Hijra? The first year of the Islamic calendar.
What is Umma? Community of believers.
Why was there an invasion of Mecca? The take back of Kaaba in order to dedicate it to Allah.
How were alliances with other tribes made? Through marriage.
When did Muhammad die? 632 CE
What was the first pillar of Islam? Shahada or declaration of faith.
What was the second pillar of Islam? Prayer, 5x a day facing Mecca.
What was the third pillar of Islam? Fasting during daylight hours at Ramadan.
What was the fourth pillar of Islam? Almsgiving or charity.
What was the fifth pillar of Islam? Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca
What was the special sixth pillar of Islam? Jihad or struggle that can be physical or spiritual.
What is a Caliphate? Islamic state/ government.
What were the first four caliphs? Rashidun (632-661 CE) state leader. Sunni/ Shia Ulama/ Imma -religious scholars
Who did Isis hate? The shia caliphate.
What did the Umayyad Caliphate (651-750) do? Moved the capital from Medina to Damascus Syria
what was special about the Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258)? Capital was in Baghdad.
What was the Caliphates accomplishments? Arabic became official language. Standing army. Power through construction. Made their own coinage. Arab and Syrian army.
Who were the Franks? Germanic tribe
Who was Clovis I (466-511)? He was the leader who converted to Christianity.
Who was Charles Martel? Muslims 732 (Tours/Poitiers).
What was the Carolingian Renaissance? It was 800CE when Charlemagne (768-814) was crowned "Emperor of the Romans".
What did Charlemagne do? He supported the pope vs Lombard's.
What is chivalry? Obey lords. Protect women and helpless. Treat everyone with respect. (Classes were important)
What is feudalism? It is a decentralized political form
What is manorialism? It is a manor in the middle of a big land. Where peasants around the manor give he lord resources in return for protection.
What is lay investiture? It was the idea that non-church officials couldn't decide who the church officials would be. Brought up during Pope Gregory VII 1075.
What was the inquisition (13th century)? It was a special papal court to root out non-doctoral education. Getting confessions
When and what was the first crusade? 1095. Jerusalem 1099 chilvary
What is a crusade? Armed pilgrimage (religious journey). Go and protect holy land and have a religious journey along with it.
What was important about the fourth crusade of 1202-1204m It was in Venice. Destruction of Constantinople. Didn't have the amount of crusaders as suspected and didn't have enough money to pay Venice. Venice had them rough up enemy's in return. Fall of the Byzantine Empire.
What happened at the last crusade in 1291? Christians were defeated by the Muslims.
What was the battle of hastings? 1066 William of Normandy vs England. No one knew who was supposed to succeed so William takes over England and becomes king of England along with Duke of Normandy.
What is the Magna Carta? Document that states: kings are not above the law, noble has to confirm the raising of taxes, cannot appoint bishops without Popes consent, and people are protected from random punishment.
How long was the Hundred Year War? Who wins? 116 years. France wins in the end. It wasn't fought the entire time.
What was the weapon of choice during the Hundred Year War. British longbow. Battle of Agincourt 1415.
Who was Joan of Arc? Why was she important? Domremy. 19 yr old girl who said god told her she was supposed to run the France army. She got France army back on their feet and gained ground.
What is humanism? The idea that people could solve their own problems.
What does Vernacular mean? It means common language. Example is Latin or Italian
Who is Leonardo da Vinci? Renissance artist. Was Italian and lived from 1452-1519. Works were: the last supper, vitruvian man and La Gioconda.
Who was Michelangelo Buonarroti? Renaissance artist. Italian who lived from 1475-1564. Works were: Sistine Chapel ceiling, the David, and the architect of St. Peter's Dome.
Why is Christopher Columbus important? Lead a voyage called reconquista in 1492. He sailed west to East Indies.
Who funded Columbus's voyage? King and Queen of Spain.
What is the Columbian Exchange? It is the transfer of plants. Animals, diseases, etc. Between Afroeurasia and the Americas after Columbus.
Where did Columbus land? Reached the Caribbean islands or West Indies and claimed it for Spain. Thought the native people were Indians.
Created by: Pancake 1