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Chemistry test 2

All Sections

QuestionAnswer
Solubility
Solubility
The resulting solution is called
Gas over a liquid at a particular temp
a given gas dissolves in a given pressure of the gas in equilibrium with the liquid
as you increase the pressure linearly for a Henry's Law
Build up saturation of nitrogen, when you resurface to quickly, it comes out of solution in the jts and tissue, this is The Bents or The Caisson's
Henry's Law only applies for constant temperatures
as temperature increases gases dissolve less
Pressure independent function Ostwald solubility Coefficient
as the ratio of the amount of substance present in one phase compared with another, the two phase being equal volume and equilibrium Partition Coefficients
Which gas is more soluble in the blood:gas coefficients? N2O, ether, halothane What are there bld:gas coefficients Ether (12) Halothane(2.3) N20(0.47)
The greater the insolubility (more equilibrium or speed) the quicker induction rate
Advantage of N20 has a quicker induction rate
Disadvantage of N20 can lead to diffusion hypoxemia (reverse of 2nd gas effect) tx: extubate with 100% o2
more soluble=more potent oil:gas coefficient (effect)
less anesthetic to achieve desired clinical effect potency
more insoluble=quicker induction rate bld:gas coefficient(equilibrium or speed)
which gas is more potent in bld Ether
which gas is more potent than ether Halothane
on the log scale with gas is most potent on pg 7 methoxytilurane
Oxygen dissolves in blood at 0.003cc/100cc/mmHg partial pressure
C02 dissolves in blood at 0.067cc/100cc/mmHg partial pressure
rate of change of a quantity of any time is proportional to the quantity at that time exponential process
process by which the molecules of a substance transfer through a layer or area such as the surface of a solution Diffusion
smaller molecules diffuse faster
rate of diffusion of a substance across a unit area is proportional to the concentration gradient fick's law
this is affected by solubility of gas diffusing into liquid medium rate of diffusion
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide rates of diffusion are different therefore more likely to become hypoxemic
Do liquid or gases take longer to diffuse liquids
Diffusion Rate= Reciprocal of the square root of the molecular weight Graham's Law
what is Graham's law equation 1/√MW 1 divided by the square root of MW=molecular wt
Diffusion equation (p1-p2)(area)(solubility)/ (memb. thickness)(√molecular wt)
what is diffusion proportional to tension gradient (p1-p2), solubility, and directly proportional to membrane area
what is diffusion inversely proportional to membrane thickness, the square root of MW of the substance diffusing
usually occurs with a semi permeable membrane, this membrane is semi permeable to one or more solutes. osmosis
moles per liter osmolarity
moles per kilogram osmolality
osmotic pressure related to proteins oncotic pressure
body osmolarity is 300mmol per liter
difference in osmolar gradient oncotic pressure
depression of vapor pressure of a solvent is proportional to the molar concentration of solute (measurement of osmolarity) Raoult's Law
factors that effect osmolarity osmotic pressure, freezing pt depression, vapor pressure reduction, and boiling pt elevation. (colligative properties)
a mixture which vaporizes in the same proportion as its constituent volume proportions Azeotropes
thermal state of a substance, determines whether heat will flow to or from the substance Temperature
a form of energy, transfer from hotter to cooler substance, energy is in the form of kinetic energy heat
SI unit of temperature kelvins
determined by general metabolic rate of person heat production
heat production= 50 W/m²=80 Watts total
four principle routes with typical heat losses Radiation, Convection, Evaporation, Respiration
what are the heat losses in percent Radiation 40% Convection 30% Evaporation 20% Respiration 10% (evaporation 8%,heating of air 2%)
carries away heat, cooler object absorbs the heat. occurs in OR accounts for 50% heat loss Radiation
Adjacent layer of air is heated, that heated air rises carrying away heat. Convection
due to loss of latent heat of vaporization (liquid on the skin) as the liquid evaporates it sucks heat out of the body Surface Evaporation
small part of heat loss, accounts for 8% of humidifying inspired air Respiration
Inspiration of dry anesthetic gases may account for intra-op hypothermia
physiologic control of temp is mediated by hypothalamus
body temp below 35 degrees C hypothermia
fever, may be due to endogenous pyrogens or from bacterial infections Pyrexia
Succinylcholine and volatile anesthetics are known triggering agents for malignant hyperthermia
occurs when skin at or higher than 45 degrees for prolonged time thermal burns
quantity of heat required to increase the temperature of an object Specific heat capacity
SI unit of specific heat capacity J/(kg k)
amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a given object by 1 kelvin heat capacity
SI unit of heat capacity J/K Joules per degree of kelvin
amount of heat required to raise the temperature 1 kilogram of a substance by 1 kelvin specific heat capacity
4.18 Joules = 1 calorie
4.18kJ= 1 kilocalorie=1C
calculated by knowing the specific heat comtent, mass, and temperature body heat content
change of state without change in temperature, requires energy latent heat
joules per sec watts
body generates how many watts? 80
energy used when a substance change state from a liquid to a gas latent heat of vaporization
the heat required to convert 1kg of a substance from one phase to another at a given temp. specific latent heat
SI unit for specific latent heat Jkg^-1
at temperature decreases the specific latent heat increases
N20 critical temperature is 36.5
critical temperature for 02 -116 C
ways to conserve energy use humidified gases circle circuit system humidity conservation device
humidity in upper trachea 34mg/L (humidify air) 9.6 watts
warming 02 2 watts
universal gas law pv=nRt R=0.0821 L atm mol-¹K-¹ p=pressure v=vol n=#'s moles of gas R=gas constant T=temp(K)
the total pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each individual component in a gas mixture. Dalton's law
SI units for pressure pascals
going form one force to another set of forces is called Van de Waals Forces
consists of identical particles of zero volume hypothetical gas ideal gases
equal vol of gases, at same temp. and pressure contain the same # of particles or molecules Avogadro's Hypothesis
one mole of ideal gas occupies 22.4 L @STP
how many liters of N20 is in a full tank 1590
the uptake of a volatile agent is increased when it is administered simultaneously with N20 Second Gas Effect
One mole of particles of solute in 22.4L produces 101.35kPa (1atm)
half life = time constant * logℯ=time constant*0.693
pressure= force/area
force= pressure * area
volume= distance*area
distance= volume/area
work= pressuure*vol.
Created by: melbacs on 2009-03-20



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