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Anatomy Urinary Test

Functions of urinary system Elimination of waste products, regulate aspects of homeostasis.
Organs of the urinary system Kidneys Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra
Location of the Kidneys Against the dorsal body wall. The right kidney is slightly lower than the left (due to position of the liver).
Purpose of adipose capsule Holds kidney in place while acting as a cushion and protecting the kidneys from any harmful blows or injuries.
Normal/ Abnormal urine contains... Normal - Sodium, potassium ions, urea, uric acid, creatine, ammonia, bicarbonate ions. Abnormal - Glucose, blood proteins, red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells (pus), bile.
Pigment of urine Yellow color due to the pigment urochrome (from the destruction of hemoglobin) and sodium.
Describe urine - in terms of medical diagnosis Sterile, slightly aromatic, normal pH of around 6, specific gravity of 1.001 to 1.035
Purpose of bladder - made of what type of muscle Temporary storage tank for urine; Three layers of smooth muscle collectively called the destusor muscle; smooth, collapsible, muscular sac.
What does trigone refer to? Triangular region of the bladder base. 3 regions of the bladder: urethra at the bottom, two ureters on either side.
Describe the urethra, (2) sphincters, which are voluntary/involuntary - type of muscle Urethra - Thin walled tube that carries urine from bladder to the outside of body by peristalsis. 2 sphincters Internal urethra sphincter: Involuntary, made of smooth muscle. External urethra sphincter: Voluntary, made of skeletal muscle.
Gender difference associated with the urethra Males are longer (8 inches) and also allow the passage of sperm. Women are about 1.5 inches long and are more prone to UTI due to length.
Normal amount of water in the human body Young Adult Female: 50% Young Adult Males: 60% Babies: 75% Elderly: 45%
Distribution of body fluid: what % comes from where? Intracellular Fluid (ICF): Fluid inside cells, about 2/3 of body fluid. Extracellular Fluid (ECF): Fluid outside cell, interstital fluid, blood plasma. W/male ICF=40%, ECF=20% Interstital 20% Plasma 80%
Maintaining water balance: source for water intake/source of water output Intake: ingested food & fluids, water produced from enetabolic processes. Output: Vaporization out of the lungs, lost in perspiration, leaves the body in the feces, urine production.
Purpose of ADH Prevents excessive water loss in urine, causes the kidneys collecting ducts to reabsorb more water.
Blood pH: Acidosis/ alkalosis Acidosis: pH below 7.35 Alkalosis: pH above 7.45
How is pH maintained - mechanisms Most acid-base balance is maintained by the kidneys, other acid-base controlling systems: Blood buffers, respiration.
Developmental aspects of the urinary system *Functional kidneys are developed by the third month ~urinary system of a new born *bladder is small *urine cannot be concentrated for first 2 months *void 5 to 40 times per day
Aging and urinary system Progressive decline in urine function, the bladder shrinks and loses bladder tone with aging.
Nephron Structural, functioning unit of the kidney
3 phases of the urine formation process Filtration: water and solubles filtered through kidney. Reabsorption: taking back the good things. Secretion: riding the body of toxins, drugs, and wastes
Examples of materials not reabsorbed Toxins, drugs, and other wastes.
Created by: zoeherrick