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History Chapter 6

Age of Exploration

Name 3 things 15th century sailors feared The sea began to boil the further south you went, the world was flat so you could fall off and that there was monsters in the sea
Name 4 reasons for increased travel. European trade centred around the Mediterranean coasts, European rulers and church leaders wanted to defeat north African Muslims, monarchs wanted more land and previous explorers had written about their travels.
What was the Great Silk Route? The main trading route between China and the East and Europe.
What were the Spice Islands/Moluccas? Modern islands of Indonesia and Philippines which were rich with herbs and spices
Why did the Great Silk Route become dangerous for traders? The Turks took over Constantinople and expanded into neighbouring regions
Why did monarchs want to conquer more land? It was more expensive to fight over already claimed lands and they hoped explorers would find riches.
What is the name for people who draw maps? Cartographer
What was a portolan? Maps of the coastline designed to help sailors find safe harbours
What is are quadrants and astrolabes? Instruments measuring the height of the sun or the North Star above the horizon
What is a chronometer? Instrument used to measure the distance east or west from a geographical point
Longitude The distance (east or west) something is from a fixed geographical point
Knot Unit used to measure the speed of a ship
Fathom Unit used to measure the depth of the water
Logbook A daily diary kept by the captain of the ship detailing the journey of the ship
Clinker-built and where from? Method of ship-building which used overlapping wooden boards on the sides of the ship to provide strength, Portugal and Spain
Lateens and where from? Triangular sails used on ships to increase manoeuvrability, Italy
Caravel and where from? A type of ship originally used by the Portuguese. It was clinker-built but it used both triangle and square sails
Carrack/naos A type of caravel developed for storage
What is a firebox? Where all the cooking was done on the ship to prevent it from catching fire
What is ships biscuit? A hard bread that didn't go stale
What is typhoid? A disease contracted from dirty water
What is scurvy? A disease contracted from lack of vitamin C
What is a chaplain? A priest who travelled with the ship
Why did Portugal lead the way in exploration? Faces towards Atlantic so hard to trade with Mediterranean, advances made by Portuguese in navigation and ship-building, heard stories of lands beyond North Africa
Who was Prester John? A mythical Christian king who supposedly lived in a kingdom on the other side of the Arab lands, who if found would create an alliance between the Christians and Muslims
What did Henry the Navigator set up and where? A navigational school in Sagres
What did the navigational school do? Gathered the best mapmakers, shipbuilders and tradesmen to find a route to the east by sailing around Africa
What are padroas? Large pillars that were placed along the coast to mark the furthest distance travelled by explorers down the African coast
What is Cape Bojador? Most westerly point of the African coast reached by the Portuguese when Henry the Navigator died
What did the Portuguese name places after? The things they find there e.g. Slave Coast
What did Bartholomew Diaz set out to do? Find the southern cape of Africa
What happened before Diaz found the cape? He was blown off course by at Orange River but then somehow found his way to the cape anyway.
What did Diaz call the cape when he found it and what was it renamed and why? He called it the Cape of Storms but the King John changed it to the Cape of Good Hope when he returned to Portugal to encourage more people to use it
What did Vasco da Gama want to find? The route to the spice islands
How many ships did Vasco da Gama set sail with? Four ships
Where did Vasco land on Christmas day after following Diaz's maps to the Cape of Good Hope? A place they called Natal
What was the name of the trader Vasco met and what did he know? Ibn Majid, the route to India
Where in India did Vasco land and what did he buy there? Calcutta, many spices and precious jewels
What did Vasco discover? The route to the East.
What were the results of Portuguese explorers? Became one of the wealthiest countries in Europe by trading, newly-discovered lands became Portuguese colonies, inspired other countries that wanted to create empires and be wealthy
What is a colony? Foreign land that a country claims to own
What did Cathay mean? Word for China
What did Cipangu? Word for Japan
Results of Columbus' Journey. (3 points) Inspired other explorers, brought first settlers to the New World (big effect for natives), shown it was possible to find land in the West
Who was Amerigo Vespucci? An explorer inspired by Columbus who realised the 'New World' was actually a new continent which was named America after him
What was the Treaty of Tordesillas? An agreement between Portugal and Spain that divided up the New World so as to avoid conflict. Spain took lands west and Portugal took lands east of line.
Why do Brazilians speak Portuguese not Spanish? It was discovered by a Portuguese sailor and it was east of the Line of Tordesillas
What is mutiny? When the crew of a ship try to remove the captain of a boat and take over its command
Who were the Patagons? Word meaning 'people with big feet' from the southern part of modern Argentina now called Patagonia
What are the Magellan Straits? Route through the southerly cape of South America from the Atlantic Ocean to Pacific Ocean
Why is the Pacific Ocean called this? It has very calm waters, compared to those of the Atlantic ocean
What is Mactan? The name of the island where Ferdinand Magellan was killed
What is circumnavigation? To sail around the world
What are conquistadores? Spanish word meaning conquerors; explorers who conquered large areas of central and south America
Who were the Aztecs? People from the ancient civilisation of modern Mexico
What was Tenochtitlan? Capital of the Aztec civilisation
What were the results of the conquests? (5 points) Other countries inspired by new lands, European countries became wealthy by creating empires, Atlantic-facing countries gained power so Mediterranean became less important, native languages died out, slavery became a huge business
Created by: stellamcb