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Module 2

A&P 1 -- Chapter 4 Medical Terminology

Cells (cyto/o) Fundamental unit of all living things
Cell membrane Surrounds and protects; determines what leaves and enters cell
Nucleus Control center of cell; contains chromosomes
Cytoplasm Gel-like substance containing organelles that carry out essential functions of a cell
Mitochondria Provide principle source of energy for the cell
Lysosomes Contain various enzymes that function in intracellular digestion
Ribosomes Build/synthesize long chains of protein "protein factories"
Components of a Cell (6) 1. Cell membrane 2. Nucleus 3. Cytoplasm 4. Mitochondria 5. Lysosomes 6. Ribosomes
Endoplasmic reticulum Network of canals within cytoplasm
Chromosomes Rod shaped structures in NUCLEUS that contain DNA-GENES; each cell contains 46 single (23 pairs) chromosomes; EXCEPTION -- egg and sperm only have 23 single chromosomes
Tissues Composed of groups of similar cells performing common functions
Types of tissues (4) 1. Connective 2. Epithelial 3. Muscle 4. Nervous
Connective tissue Supports and binds other body tissue and parts. Ie: liquid (blood); fatty (protective padding); fibrous (tendons and ligaments); cartilage (rings of trachea); or solid (bone)
Muscle tissue Capable of producing movement of the parts and organs of the body through contracting and relaxing of fibers.
3 types of muscle tissue Skeletal (attached to bone and responsible for movement); smooth/visceral (found in the walls of hollow organs like stomach and intestines); cardiac (muscular wall of heart only)
Nervous tissue Transmits impulses throughout the body; activating, coordinating and controlling many body functions
Membrane is Thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity or divides a space (abdominal membrane)
Histologist Medical specialist in the study of tissues
Cytology Study of cells
Organs Made up of tissues arranged to perform a particular function. Ie: liver; spleen; stomach; lungs; bladder; pancreas; kidneys; intestines and ovaries.
Visceral Internal organs
Systems Organizations of various organs so they perform the many functions of the body
Whole Body Groups Cells form tissues → Tissues form organs → Organs form systems → Systems form organisms
Primary body systems (13) Muscular; Endocrine; Respiratory; Lymphatic; Integumnetary; Nervous (MERLIN) Skeletal; Cardiac; Reproductive; Urinary; Digestive and Special senses (SCRUDS)
Anatomical Position Body erect; eyes forward and palms facing outward
Terms to describe Body Planes; Cavities; Quadrants; Regions of abdominal cavity and Divisions of spinal column
Body planes (3) Identify position of various parts within the body: 1. Frontal/Coronal Plane 2. Transverse/Horizontal 3. Midsagittal
Frontal/Coronal Plane Divides body anterior and posterior, front to back
Transverse/Horizontal Plane Divides across the body, parallel to the ground
Midsagittal Plane Divides lengthwise vertical (left and right side)
Abdominal Quadrants 1. Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) 2. Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) 3. Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ) 4. Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) Liver (rt); gall bladder; pancreas (rt); part of small and large intestines
Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) Liver (lt); stomach; spleen; pancreas lt); part of small and large intestine
Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ) Part of small and large intestine; ovary and fallopian (rt); appendix; ureter (rt)
Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ) Part of small and large intestine; ovary and fallopian (lt); ureter (lt)
Regions of Abdominal Quadrants Hypochondriac (lt and rt); Epigastric; Lumbar (lt and rt); Umbilical; Iliac (lt and rt) and Hypogastric
Created by: monkmaroni