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LA History

Quarter 3 Exam (Chapters 8, 9, and 10)

Louisiana Purchase - who gave what and sold what to whom? Spain originally had the Louisiana Territory, but France got it from them (Treaty of Ildefonso). France sold it to the United States to gain money for war.
Louisiana Purchase - who were the major players? Monroe, Jefferson, Livingston, Talleyrand, and Barbe-Marbois (France and United States)
Louisiana Purchase - why did the transaction take place? France (Napoleon) wanted money for war, Napoleon failed at his Haiti plan, France wanted to prevent a British-American Alliance. The United States needed to either restore right of deposit or purchase the Isle of Orleans (Island of Orleans)
Louisiana Purchase - Explain the results/effects of the purchase. France got $; US got LA and MSR - appeased western farmers; LA's citizens are happy... American/Creole Clash; war was prevented with France, US doubled in size (seen as rising power); NO and MSR = increase in trade; resources, Manifest Destiny (expand W)
West Florida Revolt 1810 - Reasons People not apart of LA Purchase want to be apart of it so they "revolt"; establish boundaries between America and Spain
West Florida Revolt 1810 - Results A briefly independent country to be annexed by America
LA's Date of Statehood? April 30, 1812
Why did TJ lack faith in "Ancient Louisianans" They were not necessarily loyal to America or a democracy. They were either French or Spanish so they were not used to America's way of life.
Reasons why the British chose New Orleans to stage a battle and where the battle took place. New Orleans was near the Gulf and the Mississippi River (major port = resources), meaning you had power over these large bodies of water; fought in Chalmette
Why was the American army considered unique? The Americans had Privateers fighting (pro-killers)-- diverse army
The significance of the battle - to New Orleanians and Americans. England now knew not to mess with US and Place d’Arms renamed to Jackson Square; New Orleanians were now considered Americans
What eventually becomes of Andrew Jackson? 7th president of the United States
Name some antebellum characteristics... North and South divided, rising tensions, plantation economy, inventions, cotton and sugarcane.
What does LA's expanding populations show about LA's economy? Louisiana’s census showed a dramatic increase in the population due to the rapid growth of sugar and cotton. COTTON IS KING= BOOMING ECONOMY!
Eli Whitney Cotton Gin - Cotton is King! Increased slavery.
Etienne de Bore Was the first person to refine sugar into what we now know as granulated sugar; invention increased slavery
Norbert Rillieux Developed vacuum pan for refining sugar; invention increased slavery
What is the plantation caste system ladder? What made the planter all powerful? The plantation caste system ladder is a visual representation of the social hierarchy during the antebellum era in the South. The planter is all powerful bc the entire economy is based off of the plantation system. Also, he has many people employed.
Give a general description of the Triangular Slave Trade. Africa sent slaves to America who would send goods, such as Tobacco, to Great Britain who would create manufactured goods and send it to Africa (repeat)
Can to Can't Slaves work until you can see the sun until you can't see the sun (Sunrise to Sunset)
Seasoned Slaves Experiences Slaves
Who managed or was in charge of slaves on a plantation? Overseers
What are the political limitations of slaves? Slaves could not marry, earn freedom, did not have an education, could not own property, or testify.
Why were slave quarters more than just a place to sleep? Slave quarters were all slaves had other than working. The quarters were the center of slave life and it created a culture in the community of slaves.
Know the questions/answers from the Slavery video clip activity, Why did the North oppose slavery? How are plantations like towns? N opposed slavery because of religion, they were more educated, the press, and they didn’t need them (bad, rocky soil). Plantations were like towns since there were so many slaves. Crops that slaves worked on (cl order): tobacco, rice, sugar, and cotton.
Know the questions/answers from the Slavery video clip activity Why did slavery thrive in Southern United States? What are the 3 most recognizable plantation buildings? Southern land could support plantations, the economy was based off of the plantation system. Mansion, overseer's place, slave cabins.
Know the reasons behind the neoclassical architectural designs of most plantation homes Greek and Roman columns. These countries were extremely powerful, and had slaves. Plantations used columns to represent power connected to slavery.
Why is the role of the factor important to the cotton planter? A factor is like an advisor to the owner of a big business. The owner of a plantation (cotton planter) is most likely a wealthy guy who got the plantation from his father. He relies on advisors, or factors, to help him make wise business choices.
Civil War dates: 1861-1865
Abolition movement A movement to stop slavery and free all slaves.
Underground Railroad A secret route used by slaves to escape to freedom. (Railway is a metaphor.) Conductors (Harriet Tubman), Stations (houses of abolitionists), Station Masters (the owners of the houses)
Missouri Compromise Maine admitted as FREE and Missouri as SLAVE; line drawn to separate Free and Slave states equally.
Compromise of 1850 California admitted as a free state and the Fugitive Slave Law passed (slave hunters can search up North for runaway slaves).
Uncle Tom's Cabin Anti slave novel by Harriet Beecher Stawe. It describes the real treatment of slaves on plantations.
Kansas-Nebraska Act Popular Sovereignty Prevails! K + N voted whether or not to allow slavery. 2 sides rushed into territory to vote their opinion, bloodshed when the 2 groups meet.
Rise of the Republican Party Est. as a result of Bleeding Kansas (KN Act), Formed from the Whig party. Northern Abolitionists.
Dred Scott Decision Annoyed North. Rented owner takes his slave North and sets slave free. Real owner sues. Slave wins, owner appeals to Supreme Court (mostly slave owners) who rule in favor of the slave owner.
The Panic of 1857 Economic Crisis
John Brown's Raid Raids a gun store in Virginia, planning to distribute arms to slaves. Captured and sentenced to death. Kinda crazy, but good cause
Election of Lincoln 1860 South Carolina secedes (and 6 more). Lincoln wanted western states to be FREE.
What was the main issue in the 1860 election for president? The issue of slavery split parties apart and became the real quality for a president; Lincoln wasn't even on the ballot for some of the states.
How would the LA economy be split apart if the state seceded? LA depended on the federal governments protective tariffs. But they also needed slaves so they decided to secede, meaning their economy failed without tariffs.
Why was NOLA so important to the Confederacy? NOLA was the trade city, controller of the MR, and had all of the valuable goods and wealth.
Why did the Union Army want to control the MR? It would split the Confederacy in 2 and block federal ports. ANACONDA PLAN
What event caused the Confederates at Port Hudson to surrender? The Union's victory at Vicksburg (6 weeks)
What happened in an area when the Union army came through? Everything was destroyed or vandalized that couldn't be used for their gain. (those things were stolen) -- "Scorched Earth"
What happened to prices of available goods? Why? They went inflamed. Union blocked trade at the MSR, raising prices and chocking LA's economy; money was losing value.
How did the Union army provide for free slaves? They tried to get them to work, mostly with low wages; put them in camps; would allow them to follow the army and ended up allowing them to fight
Why did the people of New Orleans hate General Butler? He set up harsh punishments for those opposing his troops and did not tolerate any disrespectful behavior; set up Order #28 - said women insulting any officer would be treated as a prostitute
What were the 2 state governments in LA during the war? Union-Occupied Government & Confederate State Government
What part of the state was under the control of the Confederate state government? Outside the Union lines. West LA.
What was the North's military strategy? Anaconda Plan - separated the states on the west and squeezed the Confederacy to death
What defenses protected New Orleans from the North’s plan? And were these enough? Fort Jackson and Fort St. Phillip where are chain crossed the river and rafts carrying cotton (so they could set on fire) were places. In the end, it was not enough for Admiral David Farragut was sent with 47 ships up North. NOTE: no shots fired in NO
Real reason for Emancipation Proclamation? Lincoln really did it to prevent the Confederacy from seeking European allies.
The North dominated the South in all resource categories. Explain how this dominance led to eventual victory. Having more resources allowed the North to have more artillery, uniforms, and materials needed for war. Because they were abundant in all of these resources that supported them during the war, they ultimately won.
What led the south to survive the war for four years despite the resource dominant North? General Robert E Lee; regular people would sew uniforms, and the women would work at the little factories they had as the men would go and fight.
At what point in Louisiana history were slaves introduced? Spain brought slavery to Louisiana but slavery was not new, it was practiced way before that.
Americans VS Creoles? Capital was moved a lot: New Orleans, Donaldsonville (compromise lasted one year), and then Baton Rouge; would rotate governors (didn't work out)
Explain the evolution of the term, Creole. It evolved several times - first it meant the descent of French and Spanish colonists, then anyone of color, and today it represents the Creole Culture
Explain Whigs. Supported protective tariffs to keep out foreign competition; opposed Jackson; mostly were Creoles and sugar planters; conflicts over slavery later killed the party
Explain Know-Nothings. Opposed immigrants and Catholics; blamed immigrants for problems; wanted to elect native born Americans; blamed Catholics for too much influence
Explain Jacksonian Democracy. Supported the “common man;” democratic-republicans; supported middle and lower classes over higher.
Formula for Plantation Economy? fertile soil + cotton gin + slavery
Created by: aleeallison