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Ch. 5 Key Terms

Chapter 5 Security Terms

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) A symmetric cipher that was approved by the NIST in late 2000 as a replacement for DES.
Algorithm Cryptography that uses two mathematically related keys.
Asymmetric cryptographic algorithm Cryptography that uses two mathematically related keys.
Block cipher A cipher that manipulates an entire block of plaintext at one time.
Blowfish A block cipher that operates on 64-bit blocks and can have a key length from 32 to 448 bits.
Ciphertext Data that has been encrypted
Cleartext Unencrypted data
Cryptography The science of transforming information into a secure form so that unauthorized persons cannot access it
Data encryption standard (DES) A symmetric block cipher that uses a 56-bit key and encrypts data in 64-bit blocks
Decryption The process of changing cipher text into plaintext
Diffie-Hellman (DH) A Diffie-Hellman key exchange that uses different keys
Diffie-Hellman Enphermeral A diffie hellman key exchange that uses different keys
digest the unique digital fingerprint created by a one way hash algorithm
digital signature an electronic verification of the sender
elliptic curve cryptography an algorithm that uses elliptic curves instead of prime numbers to compute keys
elliptic curve diffie hellman a diffie hellman key exchange that uses elliptic curve cryptography instead of prime numbers in its computation
encryption the process of changing plaintext into ciphertext
encryption the process of changing plaintext into ciphertext
ephemeral key a temporary key that is used only once before it is discarded
gnu privacy guard free and open source software that is commonly used to encrypt and decrypt data
hard ware security module a secure cryptographic processor
hash an algorithm that creates a unique digital fingerprint
hashed message authentication code a hash function that is applied to both the key and the message
in band exchanging secure information within normal communication channels
key a mathematical value entered into a cryptographic algorithm to produce encrypted data
key exchange the process of sending and receiving secure cryptographic keys
message digest a common hash algorithm with several different versions
message digest 5 the current version of md
non reputation the process of proving that a user performed and action
one time pad combining plaintext with a random key to create cipher text that cannot be broken mathematically
out of band exchanging secure information outside the normal communication channels
perfect forward securitty public key system that generate random public keys that are different for each session
plaintext cleartext data that is to be encrypted and decrypted by a cryptographic
pretty good privacy a commercial product that is commonly used to encrypt files and messages
private key an asymmetric encryption key that does have to be protected
private key cryptography cryptographic algorithms that use a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message
public key an asymmetric encryption key that does not have to be protected
public key cryptography cryptography that uses two mathematically related keys
quantum cryptography a type of asymmetric cryptography that attempts to use the unusual and unique behavior of microscopic objects to enable users to securely develop and share keys
race integrity primitives evaluation message digest a hash algorithm that uses two different and independent parallel chains of computation and then combines the result at the end of the process
rc4 an rc stream cipher that will accept keys up to 128 bits in length
rsa the most common asymmetric cryptography algorithm
secure hash algorithm a secure hash algorithm that creates
sponge function a cryptographic function that applies a process on the input that has been padded with additional characters until all characters are used
steganography hiding the existence of data within another type of file
stream cipher an algorithm that takes one character and replaces it with one character
symmetric cryptographic algorithm encryption that uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message
triple data encryption standard a symmetric cipher that was designed to replace des
trusted platform module a chip on the motherboard of the computer that provides cryptographic services
twofish a derivation of the blowfish algorithm that is considered to be strong
whole disk encryption cryptography that can be applied to entire disks
Created by: BWallace9311