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rad

rad and matter

QuestionAnswer
5 ways x-rays interact with matter? coherent scattering, comptom effect, photelectric effect, pair production, photodisintegration
2 most important ways that x-rays interact with matter in producing x-rays are? compton effect, photoelectric
higher energy x-rays result in _________ wave lengths short
do x-rays have long or short wavelengths? short
moderate engery x-rays interact with _________ electrons
high energy x-rays interact with __________ nuclei
two other names for coherent scattering? classical scattering, thompson scattering
type of scattering were there is no change in energy but a change in direction coherent scattering
type of scattering with no ionization coherent scattering
which direction is commonly seen in coherent scattering? forward direction
type of effect with ionization of the target atom, change in x-ray direction and reduction of energy? compton effect
how is scatter x-ray absorbed in the compton effect? photoeletrically
what effect is it when eletrons are emitted from matter after the absorption photelectric effect
partial absorption and scattering compton effect
form of ionizing radiation and as such can be dangerous X-Rays
type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths X-Rays
When radiation is only scattered by one localized scattering center, this is called? single scattering
It is very common that scattering centers are grouped together, and in those cases the radiation may scatter many times, which is known as? multiple scattering
the decrease in energy (increase in wavelength) of an X-ray or gamma ray photon, when it interacts with matter? compton effect
The amount the wavelength increases by is called? compton shift
scattering where the photon gains energy (decreasing in wavelength) upon interaction with matter inverse comtpton scattering
emitted electrons can be referred to as photoelectrons
Two sources of ionizing radiation to which everyone is exposed? Natural environmental (background radiation) Man-made radiation
Examples of natural environmental (background) radiation? Cosmic radiation from the sun and stars Radioactive elements in the earth (uranium, radium, thorium) Radio-potassium and radiocarbon (found in foods, drinking water, and the air)
Man made radiation sources? Fallout from nuclear weapons testing and effluents from nuclear power plants Radioactive materials used in industry Medical and dental exposures
ALARA As Low As Reasonably Achievable
The amount of radiation needed, when applied to the skin, to make it turn temporarily red? erythema dose
A unit of gamma radiation measured by the amount of ionization in air. In non-bony biological tissue 1 roentgen delivers a dose approximately equal to 1 rad? Roentgen
one ______ equal to the absorption of radiation energy per gram of matter. It has been replaced by the gray? Rad
Roentgen equivalent man, a unit used in radiation protection to measure the amount of damage to human tissue from a dose of ionizing radiation? Rem
A unit of radioactivity that represents the amount of radioactivity associated with one gram of radium? Curie
basis for the NCRP’s establishment of policies and procedures for radiation exposures ALARA
Radiation workers are limited by a maximum of Effective Dose Equivalent of? 5 rem per year
General public is allowed a dose limit of? .5 rem per year
Anyone less than 18 years old should receive no more than? 0.1 rem whole-body dose in 1 year
Pregnant woman should not receive no more than? .5 rem per year
SOURCES OF EXPOSURE Two sources of medical radiation exposure are? X-rays (external source) Radionuclides (internal source) X-rays (external source) Radionuclides (internal source)
Ways in which mutations can manifest themselves are? Miscarriages Physical birth defects Metabolic or biologic changes causing a predisposition to disease or premature death
Dose is measured in? grays (Gy) or sievert (Sv)
REM measures? radiation equivlalent
radiation absorption is measured by? RAD, radiation absorption dose
100 RAD = how many Gy? 1
what is the unit of radioactive activity? becquerel
What does EDE stand for? effective dose equivalent
there is no energy transfer at a deflection of how many degrees? zero
which has a higher frequency, hard or soft x-rays? hard
which has a shorter wavelength hard x-rays or soft x-rays? hard
what is it called when electrons are emitted from matter after the absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation? photoelectric
what effect is it when electrons are emitted from matter after the absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation? hertz effect
the theory of an elecctromagnetic wave scattered by charged particles? thompson scattering
the wavelength of the incident x-ray is _________ the wavelength of the scattered x-ray? equal to
most coherently scattered x-rays are scattered in what direction? forward
decrease in energy (increase in wavelength) of a x-ray or gamma ray photon when it interacts with matter is called? compton scattering
in this type of scattering the photon gains energy (wavelength gets shorter) as it interacts with matter? inverse compton scattering
amount a wavelength changes is know as? compton shift
what type of effect is it if a photon has low energy but still has sufficient enough energy to eject an electron from its host atom? photoelectric effect
when higher energy photons bombard the nucleus and cause an electron and positron to be formed it is called? pair production
Created by: srehrauer on 2009-03-02



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