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cerebral cortex neur

WVSOM cerebral cortex neuroscience

What is the cerebral cortex? very complex sheet of cells that surround the cerebral hemispheres
How large is the cerebral cortex? ~2.5 Ft2 area and ~4mm thick
What is the two things the cerebral cortex is divided into? neocortex, archicortex
What does the neocortex make up? the majority of cerebral cortex
What does the arichortex make up? hippocampus, ethorhinal cortex of cerebral cortex
Where is the archicortex located? inside the medial lobe
Where does our site of conscious mental activities, cognitive capacities and other higher functions such as language reside? neocortex
What part of the brain makes us human? neocortex
How many neurons are in the neocortex? ~30billion
Which is more numerous and by how much neurons or glia? glia, by ratio of 10:1
What are the columns of the neocortex? basic modules which are highly preserved between orders
Do humans or animals have more neocortex columns? humans
When talking about the neocortex what does tangential mean? horizontal dimension parallel to the pial surface
When talking about the neocortex what does radial mean? vertical dimension at right angles to pial surface
What is the cerebral cortex a part of: metencephalon, myencephalon, telencephalon, or diencephalon? telencephalon
What is the cerebral cortex derived from? ectoderm
How many layers are in the neocortex and how are they labeled? 6; 1=most superficial and 6= most deep
How many neocortical neurons use glutamate/ GABA? 75% use glutamate, 25% use GABA
What are the excitatory neurons of the neocortex? pyramidal cells and spiny stellate cells
What are spines? small protrusions filled with actin on all dendrites of excitatory neurons
What are spiny stellate neurons? pyramidal cells which have lost their apical dendrite, the major component of layer 4, AKA excitatory interneuron local circuit neuron
What do all pyramidal neurons have? pyramidal shaped soma, single apical dendrite, several basal dendrites, an axon attached to deepest part of cell body
Which neuronal circuits do pyramidal cells participate and why? local and long range; because they have local synapses and project neurons out to have distal synapses
What is the source of all corticofugal pathways? pyramidal cells
What do corticocortical associational pathways do? connect cortical areas in the same hemisphere
What do corticocortical commissural pathways do? connect similar cortical areas in opposite hemispheres
Which layers in the cortex does corpus collosum have axons? 2 and 3
Neurons projecting out of the cortex are found in which layers? 5 and 6
Callosal and ipsilateral corticocortical neurons are found in which layers? 2 and 3
What does inhibitory neurons look like? many varieties but always smooth and aspiny (no spines)
How many columns do inhibitory neurons project? locally tend to project in single columns
Do inhibitory neuron ever exit the cortex? no
What are the three things to remember about inhibitory neocortical neurons? release GABA can be one or more, smooth body, project locally
Do glutamatergic neurons co-localize neuropeptides? NO
Do GABAtergic neurons co-localize neuropeptides? yes
What does layer 1 of neocortex contain? inhibitory neurons no pyramidal cells
What does layer 2 and 3 of neocortex contain? excitatory neurons locally and intracortically projecting pyramidal neurons, small pyramidal neurons
What does layer 4 of neocortex contain? spiny stellate cells, major input layer of cortex, synaptic connections from thalamus
What does layer 5 and 6 of neocortex contain? locally and extracortically projecting pyramidal neurons, large pyramidal neurons
What layers of the neocortex makes up the granular layer? 1,2,3
What layers of neocortex makes up the supragranular layer? 4
What layers of neocortex makes up the infragranular layer? 5,6
True, False you are born with all the cortical neurons throughout adulthood? false, cortical neurons are created even in adulthood
What Brodman’s areas are associated with occipital lobe? primary visual or striate = 17 associational visual or extrastriate =18,19
What Brodman’s areas are associated with parietal lobe? primary somatosensory post central gyrus= 3,1,2 associational =5,7 gustatory – taste =43
What Brodman’s areas are associated with Temporal lobe? primary auditory = 40,41,42 Wernike’s area =22
What Brodman’s areas are associated with Frontal lobe? primary motor precentral gyrus= 4 frontal eyefield = 8 associational or pre-moter =6 Broca’s area speech= 44,45
What is a homunculus? little man with exaggerated features to represent the amount of cortex dedicated to that area of the body
What is plasticity? ability of the brain to rewire itself
What is the function of association fibers? connects cortical sites within the same hemisphere
What is the function of Commissural fibers? connect hemispheres, most cross through the corpus callosum
What do projection fibers do? pass from cerebral cortex to structures such as thalamus, basal ganglia, brainstem, spinal cord etc.
What does the superior longitudinal fasciculus do? connects frontal and occipital lobes
What does the arcuate fasciculus do? connect frontal and temporal language areas
What does the inferior longitudinal fasciculus do? connects occipital lobe to temporal lobe
What does the uncinate fasciculus do? connects inferior frontal lobe with temporal lobe
What does the cingulum do? connects cingulated gyrus with archicortex
What does the corpus callosum do? connects corresponding regions of neocortex for all but temporal lobes
What is the corpus callosum divided into? rostrum, genu, body, splenium
What kind of fibers do the splenium carry? visual fibers
What does the splenium connect? occipital lobes
What does the anterior commisure connect? temporal lobes
What do many of the fibers projecting away from the cortex travel through? internal capsule
State the information flow in the neocortex: info>layer4 motor sensory>neocortex>spiny stellate neurons>supragranular layer>pyramidal neurons relay>primary neocortical area>secondary associated areas>higher order associated areas>connected with dorsal medial thalamic nuclei>opposite hemisphere
Right handedness indicates: left hemisphere dominance
How prevalent is left hemisphere dominance? 90% of population
Where is language localized? in left hemisphere of 90% of people
Which hemisphere is primary controller of logic and analytic function? left
Which hemisphere is superior in musical skills, recognition of faces, emotions and spatial relationships? right
What is the grandmother cells function? facial recognitions
Where is grandmother cells found? mostly in right hemisphere
What two areas of the neocortex are predominately active for language function? Broca’s area 44,45 and wernike’s area 22 in the temporal lobe
Are the Broca’s and Wernike’s area connected if so by what? yes, arcuate fasciculus
State the language pathway: auditory cortex>Wernicke’s area>Arcuate fasciculus>Broca’s area>Motor cortex> move mouth
What is Wernicke’s area used for? vocabulary, put words together
What is Broca’s area used for? info to move the mouth
What is the motor speech area? Broca’s area 44,45
What does lesions in Broca’s area cause? expressive aphasia difficult labored talk, can still understand
What is aphasia? inability to speak
What is expressive aphasia? a motor aphasia , patient has trouble forming speech with mouth, language slow, labored, slurred, are able to understand language
What does Wernicke’s area control? vocabulary, phoneme, grammer bank and language comprehension
What is Wernike’s aphasia? sensory or receptive anaphasia where language comprehension is distorted and gibberish
Can patients with Wernike’s aphasia able to understand language? no
Can patients with Wernike’s aphasia produce language? not usually but occasionally create their own language
What does transaction of the corpus callosum result in? disconnects the two cerebral hemispheres =split brain syndrome
What is split brain syndrome? where information given selectively to one hemisphere is not available to the other hemisphere
What causes unilateral neglect? right parietal lesions
What symptoms do patients with unilateral neglect present with? they totally ignore the left part of their worlds = left visual fields and left side of their bodies
Where in the cortex is propreceptive fibers in left foot? medial portion of gyrus supplied by ACA
What is the blood supply to lateral ventricle? ACA, PCA, and MCA
What is the blood supply to caudate? MCA and ACA
What is the blood supply to Thalamus? PCA deep branches
What is the blood supply to Internal capsule? MCA deep branches, ACA
What is the blood supply to Putamen? MCA deep branches
What is the blood supply to Globus Pallidus? Anterior choroidal artery and MCA
What is the blood supply to Hippocampal Formation? Anterior choroidal artery
What is the blood supply to Temporal lobe? MCA and PCA
What is the blood supply to caudate head? ACA deep branches
What is the blood supply to internal capsule anterior limb? ACA and MCA
What is the blood supply to internal capsule posterior limb? Anterior choroidal artery
What is the blood supply to Occipital lobe? PCA and MCA
Is the balance between excitation and inhibition maintained? yes very carefully
What happens if excitation is not kept under control? brain gets over excited resulting in seizures
What happens if you have to much inhibition to excitatory neurons? coma
Is GABA excitatory or inhibitory at early postnatal ages? always inhibitory no matter what the age
Created by: hagerman