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Nerv Sys- MT Chp 10

Medical Terminology Chapter 10 -Nervous System

arthr/o articulation
cerebell/o cerebellum (little brain)
cerebr/o cerebrum (largest part of the brain)
crani/o skull
encephal/o entire brain
esthesi/o sensation
gangli/o ganglion (knot)
gli/o glue
gnos/o knowing
hypn/o, somn/i, somn/o sleep
kinesi/o movement
lex/o word or phrase
mening/o, meningi/o meninges (membrane)
myel/o spinal cord or bone marrow
narc/o stupor, sleep
neur/o nerve
phas/o speech
phob/o exaggerated fear or sensitivity
phor/o carry or bear
phren/o, psych/o, thym/o mind
schiz/o split
somat/o body
spin/o, spondyl/o spine (thorn)
vertebr/o vertebra
stere/o three dimensional or solid
tax/o order or coordination
thalam/o thalamus (a room)
ton/o tone or tension
top/o place
ventricul/o ventricle (belly or pouch)
cata- down
-asthenia weakness
-lepsy seizure
-mania condition of abnormal impulse toward
-paresis slight paralysis
-plegia paralysis
central nervous system (CNS) brain and spinal cord
brain portion of the central nervous system contained within the
cerebrum largest portion of the brain, cerebral hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum; lobes named after the skull bones they underlie
frontal lobe anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
parietal lobe portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
temporal lobe portion that lies below the frontal lobe, resonsible for hearing, taste, and smell
occiptial lobe portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision
cerebral cortex outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter, responsible for higher mental funtions (cortex=bark)
thalamus (diencephalon) two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain, responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
gyri ring or circle; convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
sulci ditch; shallow grooves that separate gyri
fissures splitting crack; deep grooves in the brain
cerebellum portion of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum, responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
brainstem region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord, resopnsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; there are three levels: mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
ventricles series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
spinal cord column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae, responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and body
meninges thee membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachniod
cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
spinal nerves 31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
sensory nerves nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain-also called afferent nerves
motor nerves nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands; also called efferent nerves (e=out;ferre=carry)
autonomic nervous system (ANS) nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
hypothalamus control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus (diencephalon)
sympathetic nervous system division of the ANS concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
parasympathetic nervous system division of the ANS that is mos active in the ordinary conditions; it counter balances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
aphasia condition without speech, due to brain injury, affects understanding, retrieving, and formulating meaningful and sequential elements of language
dysarthria condition of difficult articulation
dysphasia difficulty speaking
coma general term referring to levels of decreased consciousness with varying responsiveness
delirium state of mental confusion due to disturbances in cerebral function
dementia impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion
motor deficit loss or impairment of muscle function
sensory deficit loss of impairment of sensation
neuralgia pain along the course of a nerve
paralysis temporary or permanent loss of motor control
flaccid paralysis defective or absent muscle control caused by a nerve lesion
spastic paralysis stiff and awkward muscle control caused by a central nervous system disorder
hemiparesis partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
sciatica pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve caused by compression or trauma of the nerve or its roots
seizure suden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses
convulsion to pull together; type of seizure that causes a series of sudden, involuntary contrations of muscles
syncope fainting
tactile stimulation evoking response by touching
hyperesthesia increased sensitivity to stimulation suchas touch or pain
paresthesia abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause
agnosia any of many types of loss of neurological function associated with interpretation of sensory information
astereognosis inability to judge the form of an object by touch
atopognosis inability to locate a sensation properly, such as to locate a point touched on the body
Alzheimer disease disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of intellectual functions, total disability, and death
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) a condition of progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in total loss of voluntary muscle control; symptoms advance from muscle weakness in the arms, legs, muscles of speech, swallowing, and breathing to total paralysis and dealth-also kn
cerebral palsy (CP) condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth, characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination (palsy=paralyis)
cerebrovascular disease disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
cerebral arterioclerosis hardening of the arteries of the brain
cerebral atherosclerosis condition of lipid (fat) buildup within the blood vessels of the brain (ather/o=fatty[lipid] paste)
cerebral aneurysm dilation of a blood vessel in the brain (aneurysm=dilation or widening)
cerebral thrombosis presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel of the brain
cerebral embolism obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) stroke damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease
transient ischemic attack (TIA) brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurological deficit (impairment)- often precedes a CVA
carotid (TIA) ischemia of the anterior circulation of the brain
vertebrobasilar TIA ischemia of the posterior circulation of the brain
encephalitis inflammation of the brain
epilepsy disorder affecting the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures
tonic-clonic stiffening-jerking (grand mal) big, bad seizure
absence seizure involving breif loss of consciousness without motor involvement
partial seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms
glioma tumor of cells graded by degree of malignancy
herniated disk protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
herpes zoster viral disease affectin the peripheral nerves, characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilaterally- also known as shingles
Huntington disease (HD) hereditary disease of the central nervous system
Huntington chorea characterized by bizarre involuntary body movements and progressive dementia (charos=dance)
hydrocephalus abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain as a result of developmental anomalies, infection, injury, or tumor
meningioma benign tumor of the coverings of the brain (meninges)
meningitis inflammation of the meninges
migraine headache paroxysmal attacks of mostly unilateral headache often accompanied by disordered vision, nausea, and/or vomiting, lasting hours or days and caused by dilation of arteries
multiple sclerosis (MS) disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination (deterioration of the myelin sheath) of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurological dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
myasthenia gravis autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction, causing progressive decrease in muscle strength with activity and a return of strength after a period of rest
myelitis inflammation of the spinal cord
narcolepsy sleep disorder characterized by sleep attacks, sleep paralysis, and dreams intruding while awake
Parkinson disease condition of slowly progressive degeneration of an area of the brainstem resulting in decrease of dopamine
plegia paralysis
hemiplegia paralysis on one side of the body
paraplegia paralysis from the waist down
quadriplegia paralysis of all four limbs
poliomyelitis inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
polyneuritis inflammation involving two or more nerves, often owing to a nutrutional deficiency such as lack of thiamine
refelx sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) condition of abnormal function of the sympathetic nervous system in resonse to pain perception, usually as the result of an injury to an extremity; symptoms include persistent burning pain, tissue edema, joint tenderness, changes in skin color and temper
sleep apnea periods of breathing cessation that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
spina bifida congenital defect in the spinal clumn characterized by the absence of verebral arches, often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue
electroencephalogram record of the minute electrical impulses of the brain used to identify neurological conditions that affect brain function and level consciousness
evoked potentials record of minute electrical potential (waves) that are extracted from ongoing EEG activity to diagnose auditory, visual, and sensory pathway disorders-also used to monitor the neurological function of patients during surgery
nerve conduction velocity (NCV) electrical shock of periphreal nerves to record time of conduction; used to diagnose various periphreal nervous system diseases
polysomnography (PSG) recording of various aspects of sleep (e.g., eye and muscle movements, respiration, EEG patterns) to diagnose sleep disorders
lumbar puncture introduction of a specialized needle into the spine in the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nonionizing imaging technique using magnetic fields and radiofrequency waves to visualize anatomical structures (especially soft tissue)
magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) use of magnetic resonance in imaging of the blood vessels-useful in detecting pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis
intracranial MRA magnetic resonance image of the head to visualize the vessels of the cirle of Willis (common site of cerebral aneurysm, stenosis, or occlusion)
extracranial MRA magnetic resonance image of the neck to visualize the carotid artery
nuclear medicine imaging radionuclide organ imaging
SPECT brain scan (single photon emission computed tomography) scan combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of the brain after administration of radioactive isotopes
positron emission tomography (PET) technique combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of brain anatomy and corresponding physiology
radiography x-ray imaging
cerebral angiogram x-ray of blood vessels in the brain after intracarotid injection of contrast medium
computed tomography (of the head) computed tomographic x-ray images of the head used to visualize abnormalities within
myelogram x-ray of the spinal cord made after intraspinal injection of contrast medium
reflex testing test performed to observe the body's response to a stimulus
deep tendon reflexes (DTR) involuntary muscle contraction after percussion at a tendon indicating function
Babinski sign or reflex pathological response to stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot
transcranial sonogram image made by sending ultrasound beams through the skull to assess blood flow in intracranial vessels
craniectomy exision of part of the skull to approach the brain
craniotomy incision into the skul to approach the brain
diskectomy removal of herniated disk ofte done percutaneously
laminectomy excison of one or more laminae of the vertebrae to approach the spinal cord
vertebral lamina flattened posterior portion of the verebral arch
microsurgery utilization of a microscope to dissect minute structures during surgery
neuroendovascular surgery diagnosis and treatment of disorders within cerebral blood vessels performed in a specialized angiographic laboratory by interventional neuroradiologists
neuroplasty surgical repair of a nerve
spondylosyndesis spinal fusion
chemotherapy treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents that destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
radiation therapy treatment of neoplastic disease using ionizing radiation to impede proliferation of malignant cells
stereotactic (stereotaxic) radiosurgery radiation treatment to inactivate malignant lesions involving the focus of multiple, precise external radiation beams on a target with the aid of a stereotactic fram and imaging- inoperable brain tumors and other lesions
stereotactic frame mechanical device used to localize a point in space targeting a precise site
analgesic agent that releives pain
anticoagulant drug that prevents the clotting of blood
anticonvulsant agent that prevents or lessens convulsion
hypnotic agent that induces sleep
sedative agent that has a calming effect
affect emotional feeling or mood
flat affect significantly dulled emotional tone or outward reaction
apathy lack of interest or display of emotion
catatonia state of unresponsiveness to one's outside environment
delusion persistent beleif that has no basis in reality
grandiose delusion person's false belief that he or she possesses great wealth, intelligence, or power
persecutory delusion person's false belief that someone is plotting against him or her with intent to harm
dysphoria restless, dissatisfied mood
euphoria exaggerated, unfounded feeling of well-being
hallucination false perception of the senses for which there is no reality, most commonly hearing or seeing things
ideation formation of thoughts or ideas
mania state of abnormal elation or increased activity
neurosis psychological condition in which anxiety is prominent
psychosis mental condition characterized by distrotion of reality, resulting in the inability to communicate or function within one's environment
thought disorder thought that lacks clear processing or logical disorder
major depression, major depressive illness, clinical depression, major affective disorder, unipolar disorder disorder causing periodic distrubances in mood; characterized by feelings of worthlessness, fatigue, and loss of interest
dysthymia milder affective disorder characterized by a chronic depression persisting for at least 2 years
manic depression, bipolar disorder (BD) affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression (extreme up and down states)
seasonal affective disorder (SAD) affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and windter and remit in the spring
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) most common anxiety disorder, characterized by chronic, excessive and uncontrollable worry
panic disorder (PD) disorder of sudden, recurrent attacks of intense feelings including physical symptoms that mimic a heart attack
phobia exaggerated fear of a specific object or circumstance that causes anxiety and panic
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) condition resulting from an extremely traumatic experience, injury, or illness that leaves the sufferer with persistent thoughts and memories of the ordeal.
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions, which can interfere with daily life
hypchondriasis preoccupation with thoughts of disease
autism developmental disability from neurological disorder affecting brain function
dyslexia developmental diability characterized by a difficulty understanding written or spoken workds
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder dysfunction characterized by condsistent hyperactivity, distractibility, and lack of control over impulses
mental retardation condition of subaverage intelligence characterized by an IQ of 70 or below
anorexia nervosa severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's body weight
bulimia nervosa eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestion
substance abuse disorders mental disorders resulting from abuse of substances such as drugs, alcohol, or other toxins
schizophrenia disease of the brain chemistry causing distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one's environment characterized by a broad range of positive and negative symptoms
disorganized schizophrenia featuring disorganized speech, behavior, and flat or inappropriate affect
catatonic schizophrenia featuring catatonia
paranoid schizophrenia featuring delusions, most often persecutory or grandiose types
schizoaffective disorder concurrent with major depression or manic depression
psychotherapy treatment of psychiatric disorders using verbal and nonverbal interation with patients, individually or in a group, employing specific actions and techniques
behavioral therapy treatment to decrease or stop unwanted behavior
cognitive therapy treatment to change unwanted patterns of thinking
psychotropic drugs medications used to treat mental illness
antianxiety drugs (anxiolytic) drugs used to reduce anxiety
antidepressant agent that counteracts depression
neuroleptic agents drugs used to treat psychosis, especially schizophrenia
Created by: mh