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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Terms

access list A paper or electric record of individuals who have permission to enter a secure area, the time that they entered, and the time they left the area.
activity phase controls Subtypes of security controls, classified as deterrent, preventive, detective, compensation, or corrective.
administrative control Process for developing and ensuring that policies and procedures are carried out, specifying actions that users may do, must do, or cannot do.
alarm An audible sound to warn a guard of an intruder.
antispyware Software that helps prevent computers from becoming infected by different types of spyware.
antivirus Software that can examine a computer for any infections as well as monitor computer activity and scan new documents that might contain a virus.
barricade A structure designed to block the passage of traffic.
Bayesian filtering Spam filtering software that analyzes every word in an email and determines how frequently a word occurs in order to determine if it is spam.
Big Data A collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using on-hand database management tools or traditional data processing application.
blacklist Permitting everything unless it appears on the list; a list of nonapproved senders.
cable lock a device that can be inserted into the security slot of a portable device and rotated s that the cable lock is secured to the device to prevent it from being stolen.
client-side validation Having the client web browser perform all validations and error recovery procedures.
CCTV Video cameras and receivers used for surveillance in areas that require security monitoring.
compensating control Control that provides an alternative to normal controls that for some reason cannot be used.
corrective control Control that is intended to mitigate or lessen the damage caused by an incident.
cross-site request forgery (XSRF) An attack that uses the user's web browser settings to impersonate the user.
data at-rest Data that is stored on electronic media.
data in-transit Data that is in transit across a network, such as an email sent across the Internet.
data in-use A state of data in which actions upon it are being performed by "endpoint devices" such as printers.
data loss prevention (DLP) A system that can identify critical data, monitor how it is being accessed, and protect it from unauthorized users.
deadbolt lock A door lock that extends a solid metal bar into the door frame for extra security.
detective control A control that is designed to identify any threat that has reached the system.
deterrent control A control that attempts to discourage security violations before they occure.
embedded system A computer system with a dedicated function within a larger electrical or mechanical system.
errors Faults in a program that occur while the application is running. Also called exceptions.
exceptions See errors.
fencing Securing a restricted area by erecting a barrier.
firewall Hardware or software that is designed to prevent malicious packets from entering or leaving computers. Also called packet filter.
fuzz testing (fuzzing) A software testing technique that deliberately provides invalid, unexpected, or random data as inputs to a computer program.
guard A human who is an active security element.
host-based application firewall A firewall that runs as a program on a local system.
hotfix Software that addresses a specific customer situation and often may not be distributed outside that customer's organization.
input validation Verifying a user's input to an application.
lighting Lights that illuminate an area so that it can be viewed after dark.
locking cabinet A ruggedized steel box with a lock.
mainframe A very large computing system that has significant processing capabilities.
mantrap A device that monitors and controls two interlocking doors to a small room (a vestibule), designed to separate secure and nonsecure areas.
motion detection Determining an object's change in position in relation to its surroundings.
NoSQL A nonrelational database that is better tuned for accessing large data sets.
NoSQL databases vs. SQL databases An argument regarding which database technology is superior. Also called SQL vs.NoSQL
OS hardening Tightening security during the design and coding of the OS.
packet filter Hardware or software that is designed to prevent malicious packets from entering or leaving computers.
patch A general software security update intended to cover vulnerabilities that have been discovered.
popup blocker Either a program or feature incorporated within a browser that stops popup advertisements from appearing.
preventive control A control that attempts to prevent the threat from coming in and reaching contact with the vulnerability.
protected distribution system (PDS) A system of cable conduits that is used to protect classified information being transmitted between two secure areas.
proximity reader A device that detects an emitted signal in order to identify the owner.
safe A ruggedized steel box with a lock.
SCADA (supervisory control and data acquistion) Large-scale, industrial-control systems.
security control Any device or process that is used to reduce risk.
security policy A document or series of documents that clearly defines the defense mechanisms an organization will employ to keep information secure.
server-side validation Having the server perform all validations and error recovery procedures.
service pack Software that is a cumulative package of all security updates plus additional features.
sign A written placard that explains a warning, such as notice that an area is restricted.
smartphone A cell phone with an operating system that allows it to run third-party applications.
SQL vs. NoSQL An argument regarding which database technology is better. Also called NoSQL databases vs. SQL databases.
static environment Devices in which additional hardware cannot easily be added or attached.
technical controls Security controls that are carried out or managed by devices.
trusted OS An operating system that has been designed through OS hardening.
video surveillance Monitoring activity that is captured by a video camera.
whitelist Permitting nothing unless it appears on the list.
wrapper function A substitute for a regular function that is used in testing.
Created by: bnash52