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Climate-Chapter 2

Climate and Climate Zones

TermDefinition
weather unpredictable changes in the air that take place over a short period of time
monsoon seasonal wind that blows over a continent for months at a time
hurricane violent tropical storm with high winds and heavy rains
local wind pattern of wind caused by landforms in a particular area
climate usual, predictable pattern of weather in an area over a long preriod of time
tornado funnel-shaped windstorm that sometimes forms during a severe thunderstorm
El Nino Combination of temperature, wind , and water effects in the Pacific Ocean that causes heavy rains in some areas and drought in others
greenhouse effect bulidup of certain gases in the atmosphere that, like a greenhouse, hold more of the sun's warmth
canopy umbrella-like covering formed by the tops of trees in a rain forest
permafrost permanently frozen lower layers of soil in the tundra and subarctic regions
timberline elevation along mountains above which no trees grow
savanna broad grassland in the tropics with few trees; hot year-round; has a rainy season and a dry season; in the Tropics
tropical rainforest dense forest that receives high amounts of rain each year; hot year-round; in the Tropics
marine west coast climate rainy and mild winters and cool summers; in the Mid-Latitudes
Mediterranean Climate mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; in the Mid-Latitudes
humid continental long, cold and snowy winters and short, hot summers; in the Mid -Latitudes
humid subtropical hot, humid, rainy summers and short, mild winters; in the Mid-Latitudes
tundra vast rolling plain without trees; lower layers of soil are permafrost; sturdy grasses and low-growing berry bushes; in the high latitudes
Subarctic Severely cold and bitter winters; temperatures do rise above freezing in the summer; evergreen Taiga forests; in the high latitudes
Ice Cap great sheets of ice and bitterly cold; monthly temperatures average below freezing; only lichen grows here; in the high latitudes
desert less than 10 inches of rain per year; cacti or small areas of thick plant life; a dry climate
steppe treeless plain; partly dry grasslands and prairies; 10-20 inches of rain per year; bushes and short grasses; a dry climate
highland Mountains; highest mountains have very cold climates (even at the equator); has a timberline
Created by: j.otto