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Nervous System

True/False The spinal cord and pharmacology of the CNS

Benzodiazepines block y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) action by binding to the GABA receptor. False, benzodiazepines facilitate GABA action at the GABA receptors.
Benzodiazepine actions can be prolonged by active metabolites. True, this may produce a prolonged sedative effect.
Benzodiazepines raise the seizure threshold. True, they reduce neuronal excitability by hyperpolarising the cell with Cl- ions.
Buspirone may act on presynaptic 5-hydrozytryptamine (5-HT) receptors to decrease endogenous 5-HT release. True, although the mechanism of action remains unclear.
Dependence is rare with benzodiazepines. False, dependence is a very difficult side-effect to treat and occurs easily.
The cheese reaction occurs because of inhibition of cerebral monoamine oxidase by monoamine oxidase inhibitors. False, the cheese reaction occurs due to the inhibition of liver monoamine oxidase.
Tricyclics show an antimuscarinic and anti-adrenergic side effect profile. True, side effects include dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention (muscarinic) and postural hypotension (adrenergic).
'Typical' antipsychotic potency is proportional to the D4 blocking ability. False, typical antipsychotic potency is proportional to D2 receptor blockade activity.
The motor side effects of antipsychotics are due to effects on the pyramidal system. False, they are extrapyramidal side effects (effects on the D2 receptor activity of the nigrostriatal pathway).
Clozapine blocks the D2 receptor preferentially. False, clozapine acts on 5-HT(2A) receptors more so than D2 receptors.
The spinothalamic tracts carry ipsilateral sensory information. False, the spinothalamic tracts carry contralateral sensory information.
The dorsal columns carry ipsilateral sensory information. True, the dorsal columns decussate in the medulla.
The lateral corticospinal tracts carry crossed fibres. True, these are motor fibres from the contralateral motor cortex.
The tectospinal tract carries information to the midbrain. False, the tectospinal tract carries information from the midbrain to the spinal cord.
The dorsal columns carry information about pain and temperature. False the dorsal columns carry information predominantly about fine touch, vibration and position sense (proprioception).
In adults, the cord ends at the level of L3. False, in adults the cord generally ends at L1-2.
The dorsal tract columns decussate in the cord. False, the dorsal column tracts decussate in the medulla.
Tabes dorsalis leads to a loss of fine touch and proprioception. True, tabes dorsalis is a bilateral lesion of the dorsal columns.
Right or left hemisection of the cord (Brown-Sequard syndrome) leads to contralateral sensory loss. True, there are both ipsilateral (fine touch, proprioception) and contralateral (pain, temperature) losses in Brown-Sequard syndrome.
The grey matter lies peripherally in the spinal cord. False, the cell bodies (grey matter) lie centrally within the spinal cord.
The pyramidal tract contains axons originating only in the primary motor cortex. False, one-third of fibres regulate spinal reflexes from the sensory system.
The pyramidal tract passes through the posterior one third of the internal capsule. True, the pyramidal tract passes through the posterior part of the internal capsule.
The corticobulbar tracts do not decussate (i.e. they supply the ipsilateral side of the face). False, the corticobulbar tracts decussate just after the internal capsule.
The fibre tracts have several collateral neurons. False, they have few collateral neurons so as to exert better control over the execution of movement.
The pyramidal tracts decussate in the pons. False, the pyramidal tracts decussate at the junction between the medulla and the spinal cord.
Created by: sallyelphick