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2nd 9 weeks


Independent Variable Part of the experiment that changes.
Dependent Variable Part of the experiment that is being observed for changes.
Replication Performing an experiment that someone else has already performed.
Repetition Repeating the same experiment multiple times to reduce margins of error.
scientific method 1. Ask a question 2. Hypothesis 3. Experiment 4. Data 5. Conclusion
Length Distance between two points
Volume Length x Width x Height
Mass Amount of Matter in an object
Density (and know how to calculate density) Mass divided by Volume
Force Push or pull on an object
Net Force The sum of all the forces acting on the object.
Balanced Force When the net force on the object is ZERO. This means the object is not increasing or decreasing speed, or changing direction. There is NO ACCELERATION.
Unbalanced Force When the net force is NOT ZERO. If the net force is not ZERO, then the object is accelerating. This means it could be changing direction, increasing speed or decreasing speed.
Newton’s First Law of Motion (Law of Inertia) An object will continue at a constant rate of speed until acted upon by another force. This is known as the Law of Inertia.
Newton’s 2nd Law States that force equals mass times acceleration. F=ma F=d(mv)/dt To simplify- The more massive the object is, the more force is required to change the speed or direction.
Newton’s 3rd Law For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Normal Force/Contact Force: Normal Force force exerted by being in contact with another object (the floor exerts a normal force preventing us from falling.
Contact Force must be touching (opposite of normal force)
Gravity Is determined by mass of two objects and distance.
Weight Force caused by gravitational attraction. On Earth, it is 9.8 m/s^2 times mass.
Which of the following would cause the gravitational force between two objects to increase? Increase the distance between them.
The net force on an object moving with constant speed in a circular motion is in which direction? Downward
Gravity can only affect an object if it has a greater gravitational pull from an object.
When enough mass gathers together, gravity causes the object to become slower in movement.
Describe the force that causes the planets to stay in orbit around the sun. Gravitational Force
“An object in motion tends to stay in motion, and an object at rest tends to stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force” If you were in a place with no friction or gravity, A) What would happen to a ball if you threw it? Since there wouldn’t be a gravitational pull on the object (reason the ball goes back to the ground) then the ball would not have a solid contact with the surface of the Earth.
What would happen if you held the ball out in front of you and let go? The ball will not have the gravitational pull to force the ball to fall on the ground so it will just stay in it’s original position.
Velocity The speed and direction of an object.
Acceleration The rate at which velocity changes. This means that if you change speed or direction you are accelerating. Unit- m/s^2
Inertia The natural tendency of an object to remain at rest or to remain moving with constant speed in a straight line.
Potential Energy: stored energy
Chemical Holds different atoms together in chemical bonds.
Gravitational Energy stored by changing shape of a material.
Elastic energy stored by changing shape of a material.
Atomic Holds protons of atoms together.
Kinetic Energy Moving energy
Mechanical When an object is in motion rad.
Thermal heat
Electrical Composed of electrons
Radiant light
List the electromagnetic spectrum from lowest energy to highest energy (energy=frequency) Radio, Microwave, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, X-ray, and Gamma
List the colors of light from lowest energy to highest energy (energy=frequency) lowest- Purple, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Red- highest
Amplitude height of wave (strength of wave) volume is the strength of sound
Wavelength distance between two crests
Frequency number of waves which pass through a single point in one second short wavelength=high frequency long wavelength= low frequency
Mechanical Wave Any wave that requires matter to move through.
1st Law of Thermodynamics Energy can be transformed, but cannot be created or destroyed. (The law of conservation of energy)
2nd Law of Thermodynamics: Something is hot if it has a higher temperature than our body, thermal energy transfers from the object into our body. Something is cold if it has a lower temperature than our body, thermal energy transfers into the object from our body.
3rd Law of Thermodynamics Particles are always in motion. Absolute zero can never be reached.
Conduction Is when energy is transferred by direct contact.
Convection Is when the fluid motion of a substance transfers heat through it. Warm air/liquid moves up, cooler air/liquid moves down.
Radiation is the transfer of heat through have electromagnetic waves. The object does not have electromagnetic waves. The object does not have to be touching what it warms. This means that waves of heat energy pass through matter or empty space.
Created by: 4804175501