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RS Microbiology

Respiratory System Microbiology - Virology of LRTI

Important viral causes of LRTI: Influenza Para-influenza Respiratory syncytial virus SARS MERS Human metapneumovirus (2001) common in comprised children and elderly persons
Para influenza Viruses cause: Croup (Acute Laryngotracheobronchitis),pneumonia in children, and common cold – like disease in adults
5 subtypes for Para Influenza viruses: 1, 2, 3, 4a and 4b
Surface spikes on para influenza viruses consist of: H, N and fusion proteins
Transmission of Parainfluenza via: Respiratory droplets
Clinical findings of infection with parainfluenza: Croup – Harsh cough – Inspiratory stridor – Hoarse voice Patients are usually afebrile. About 80% of patients exhibit runny nose
Which other viruses can induce croup? Influenza viruses RSV Measles and chickenpox
Lab diagnosis: Clinically for croup Cell culture isolation Immunoflurescence Antibody rising titre using HAI or ELISA
Treatment for parainfluenza: Nursing in plastic tents supplied with cool, moistened oxygen Severe respiratory obstruction may require endotracheal intubation followed by a tracheotomy
RSV infections cause: Pneumonia Bronchiolitis in infants
RSV is a major nosocomial pathogen in: Pediatric wards
Transmission of RSV Respiratory droplets and direct contact of contaminated hands with the nose or eye
Incubation period is: 3-6 days
Syncytia form in which organ, in the case of RSV? The lungs
RSV is the most common cause of: Severe lower respiratory disease in young infants 50-90% bronchiolitis 5-40% pneumonias
In young children, RSV may cause: Otitis media
In older children and adults, RSV may cause: Common cold like disease
What is the effect of RSV infections in infants? Febrile URTI Lower respiratory tract involvement Worsening cough Tachypnoea and dyspnoea Hyperinflation of lungs Cyanosis
Risk groups for RSV infections: Infants with congenital heart disease Infants with pulmonary disease Immunocompromised infants Nephrotic syndrome and cystic fibrosis
Complications of RSV infections: 1) Apnea 2) Alterations in pulmonary functions which may lead to chronic lung diseases later in life
Laboratory diagnosis of RSV infection is done with: Immunoflurescence on smears of respiratory secretions ELISA for detection of RSV antigens Isolation in cell culture (multinucleated giant cells or syncytia) Rise of antibody titer
Characteristics of SARS-causing virus: Enveloped virus, Replicates in cytoplasm of animal cells Single-strand 30 kb RNA genome First identified in Guangdong Province, China in 2002 Associated Coronavirus SARS-HCoV Replication in cytoplasm rather than nuclei
Symptoms for SARS: Initially: High fever of 38оC or higher, head and body aches, and malaise. Week Later: dry cough, difficulty breathing and severe diarrhea. Recovery: after 5 to 6 days
Diagnostic tests for SARS: Antivirals and steroids used for atypical pneumonia Lab tests: RT-PCR EIA ELISA
Prevention: Isolation Sterilization of area 3 possible Vaccines (whole-killed, adenovirus vector, or recombination spike protein
What is MERS? Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus
MERS was first reported in: Saudi Arabia
Characteristics of MERS: Positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Betacoronavirus
MERS-CoV is distinct from SARS coronavirus Common-cold coronavirus Betacoronaviruses (HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1)
How does transmission of MERS occur? Via respiratory secretions
Metapneumovirus was first isolated in: Nasophargyngeal aspirates from 28 children over a 20 year period
Created by: Ulaisl