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history midterm

Flagellants They beat themselves with sticks and whips and adopted other forms of self-abuse as punishment for their supposed sins.
Simony The buying or selling of ecclesiastical privileges. Simony is also buying church offices. Giovanni was already a cardinal at the age of 16. This was a result of simony engaged in by his father Lorenzo.
Sandro Botticelli He was an Italian painter of the early Renaissance. He worked on the frescoes in the Sistine chapel. He also included himself in his paintings.
Michelangelo He was a famous painter Architect, poet and sculpture. His most famous works where "David" and "pieta" staue and the Sistine chapel frescoes.
Babylonian Captivity The French kings controlled the papacy for nearly 70 years beginning in 1309
Nepotism A higher power shows favoritism towards a relative. This is significant because if you are the pope and you get to choose the cardinal. You would choose a relative over a person better suited for that position.
Indulgences Papers that you could buy from the pope that would get you out of purgatory. Many people disagreed with indulgences you can't buy your way out of purgatory.
Machiavelli Ruled Florence after the Medici exile. He is most famous for writing the book "Prince" in prison.
Inquisition They were people run by the government but established by the Catholic Church. They were ordered to seek out people that were believed to be guilty of heresy.
Galileo Was a personal tutor to the Medici family. Galileo tried to publish his heliocentric theory in the dialogue of the 2 world system he also created a book of his theory.
Jan Huss A religious thinker&reformer.Initiated a reform movement based on ideas of JohnWycliffeTheCatholicChurch did not disregard such uprisings&Hus was excommunicated in1411&burned at the stake July 6,1415been condemned by CouncilOfConstance in an unfair trial.
Martin Luther A German who believed that indulgences were fake. He also nailed the 95 theses to the door of the Catholic Church. He stood up to the recognized authority.
Anabaptist Christians who rejected infant baptism in favor of believer's baptism.
Louis XVI Married to Marie Antoinette; weird; became king before he was ready
Estates General Meeting to discuss voting process of the 3 estates.People thought the3rd estate would end up getting >1vote because the3rd estate had more people than the1st&2nd estate.When people found out all estates were going to be =.3rd estate was very disappointed.
Tennis Court Oath A mtng held by a tennis court to discuss a constitution.This was significant bc people would not leave until they gave them a constitution.Was pivotal pt in the French Revolution bc they wanted to break off from the estates general&become a natl assembly.
Jacobins They were in the 3rd estate. They were trying to get rid of the monarchy&the vestiges(left overs). They were also trying to get rid of Christianity.They felt like the people needed to move forward from Christianity.
Festival of Supreme Being A festival held by Robespierre. People wanted to worship something & by this time Robespierre had lost it.He is trying to get the people to worship him.This is significant because it was the final straw with Robespierre that led to his death.
Black Death The most serious challenge.It was a plague carried by black rats but transmitted by flees. The people would get sick within days of the bit.It was spread through the air.
Filippo Brunelleschi He was one of the leading architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance, he is best known for his work on the Duomo in Florence
Leonardo da Vinci He was a leading artist of the Italian Renaissance. He was most known for his painting"The Last Supper."
La Primavera Was painted by Sandro Botticelli. It illustrated the meaning of renaissance because it was an iconic picture. It was not religious or sacred. It was a picture of spring. It was meant for an audience like the Medici or other powerful people.
Great Schism There were 2 popes & 3 people claimed to be pope. So there were too many popes.This ended the western schism.
Pope Leo X Devoted to pleasure of flesh, parties used all of the money the church had; church went bankrupt and so he sold indulgences for money.
Johann Tezel A priest; main person that sold indulgences
Jesuits Navy seals of the catholic church, missionaries; they traveled to Asia and america
Council of Trent Were a ban on the sale of indulgences & church offices & new rules for the conduct of the clergy. They rejected the Protestants emphasis on self-discipline & individual faith.
Heliocentric View The earth & the planets revolve around the sun in the center of the solar system.
John Wycliff Best known for translation the bible into common language
95 Theses They were written by Martin Luther. The debate protests against church abuses, especially nepotism, simony, and the sale of indulgences.
Transubstantiation This is where people believed that during communion instead of the bread being a symbol of Jesus' blood and body they believed that the wine and breads was actually Christs blood and body.
Marie Antoinette Austrian princess married to Louis XVI to form allies.
Third Estate Commoners - towns people (larges $of people) the 3 estate were people like us they were only put in the 3 estate because they weren't as rich as the 1 & 2 estate.
Maximillian Robespierre He was a lawyer and Politian. He was significant because he was the leader of the Jacobins; he held the Festival of the Supreme being that lead to his death.
Committee on Public Safety This was not anything like it sounds. They were people that were killing other people because they felt like they were a threat. This was significant because it was supposed to keep people safe but indstead it just killed a lot of innocent people.
Describe the attitude Europeans had concerning the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. The Catholic Church had all the power and every one feared them. People viewed them as the most powerful institution.
How did the Black Death actually have a positive effect on the economy of Europe? It lowered the population which opened up room for more land.
Explain the "client / patron" system as related to art in the Middle Ages. were a client would have art custom-built while today the artist paints a picture and hangs it up to be seen/bought.
How did the Medici family of Florence contribute to the Renaissance? They made Florence prosper by art and humanism during a rough time.
Describe the Renaissance Popes and explain the impact they had on how the Catholic Church was viewed. More into art instead of spiritual stuff and wasted church's money with projects; led to the decline of the church
What was "Christian Humanism?" Explain how this view is a synthesis of both Medieval & Renaissance thinking? The belief that man is in the image of God w/ education&application of scripture man can change society for good.This is a medieval belief that"man must suffer to appease god's wrath"&the renaissance belief that"man is the measure of all things"
What were some reasons for the erosion of the authority of the Catholic Church by 1500? secularism during the enlightenment era. Christian humanists believed catholic church corrupted Christianity with tradition & emphasizes on different theological issues. Babylonian captivity; renaissance popes
Why is the term "Catholic Reformation" more accurate & fair than "Counter Reformation?" The Catholic Reformation is more fair because the catholic church had already began reformation. Then protestants broke way and began to work on forming church.
What were some commonly held beliefs of all the reformers? No indulgences and that the bible needs to be translated into common languages.
What was Martin Luther trying to accomplish when posting the 95 Theses as opposed to what is often assumed? What technology played a key role in this event? Explain. church wasdoing bad-indulgencedWanted to addresshis concerns ofthe churchIt lead tothe bible being translated into common languagesGutenberg createdprinting pressHelped Luther print the95theses&nail them tothe church door theywere declaring independence
Why is Martin Luther's actions at the Diet of Worms such a turning point in history; even for those who are not religious? He stood up to the designated power which was a huge turning point for everyone. No one had ever stood up to the catholic church like that before because of the severity of the punishment. This ultimately helped push reformation&the renaissance forward
What was the assumption made by the scientists who sparked the Scientific Revolution? Galileo was a personal tutor to Medici family.He tried to publish his Heliocentric Theory in the dialogue of the 2world systemsHe created a book of his theoryHeliocentricTheory - the sun was the center of the universe&the planets rotated around the sun.
What were John Locke's 3 ideas about government? 1. He believed right to life liberty property 2. government govern with consents 3. right to rebel.
Explain why the French Revolution (FR) failed to resolve itself as did the American Revolution (AR)? AR had end game&focused on Christian humanismFrench did not have end gameThey crushed reformation in France.FR crushed church&trusted human reason state secularism led France into reign of terror,dectatorship&warFocused on church&man as ctr of all things.
What measures did the Jacobins regarding Christianity? Why? Viewed Christianity like it was not neededIt was a vestige which means left over so they tried to get rid of Christianity,Actions lead to the reign of terrorJacobins closed churches,raised cults,&outlawed public&private worship to get rid of Christianity.
Explain how the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment were affected by both Secular Humanism and Christianity. The idea that both Christians and non-Christian drove the enlightment ands move away from superstition
How was the Northern Renaissance different from the Southern (Italian) Renaissance? Northern= more religious; contributed to the printing press; Christian humanism southern= secularism
Created by: Lauren Bowers