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P.S. Exam 4

force opposing the expansion of the universe graivty
speed of plate tectonic motion 1-10 centimeters a year
cosmological red shift shows other galaxies are moving away from us, the furthest away moving the fastest
four studies to determine structure and composition of earth compare density of rocks to earth, S and P wave behavior, magnetic field, meteorites
measure distances to far away galaxies with cosmological red shift
gas that transmits higher energy visible photons and absorbs large part of infrared photons greenhouse gas
major source of surface water on continents precipitation
elements heavier than iron are produced in supernova explosions
Mesosphere is mostly in what state solid
upper mantle name asthenosphere
asthenosphere characteristic most of material is near melting point
most important erosion agent in hydrologic system running water
force that causes a protostar to collapse gravity
early stages in big bang model have high temps, high densities, fundamental particles
Fossils can determine relative age of sedimentary layers
what causes an alluvial fan running water
streams carry more sediment when moving quickly
stars spend most of life as hydrogen burning star
how does energy from the sun drive the hydrological system energy is transferred by radiation through atmosphere to oceans, more near equator
triangulation distance up to 1,000 light years
radar ranging distance within solar system
what causes deltas running water
order of layers of the earth from outer to inner lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, outer core, inner core
what layer is mostly peridotite and dense oxides mantle
what layer is rigid and completely solid lithosphere
what layer is plastic and completely solid mesosphere
what layer is mostly solid plastic with some molten material asthenosphere
star size for a black hole to occur large
star size for a planetary nebula to occur small
red giant occur in all stars
star size for a supernova to occur medium large
put in order from start to end: red giant, protostar, neutron star, hydrogen burning star protostar, hydrogen burning star, red giant, neutron star
original horizontality says rock layers become tilted after the layers were originally formed
cross cutting says younger layers cut older layers
what happens to melting temperatures as water combines with rock in subduction zones lower
what is used to find absolute age radiometric dating
two variables plotted in an H-R diagram color and true brightness
energy source driving plate tectonics Gravitational potential energy
S waves can or cannot travel through liquid outer core cannot
what do you find at convergent oceanic-oceanic volcanoes, island arcs, earthquakes, trenches
what do you find at convergent oceanic-continental mountains, volcanoes, earthquakes, trenches
what do you find at convergent continental-continental mountains, earthquakes
what do you find at divergent oceanic-oceanic mid ocean ridges, earthquakes, small islands, volcanoes
what do you find at divergent continental-continental valleys, earthquakes
island arcs are formed by convergent oceanic-oceanic
island chains are formed by hot spots
light on snow is _ and temperatures _ reflected, lower
light on sand is _ and temperatures _ reflected, lower
light on water at a low angle is _ and temperatures _ reflected, lower
light on water at a sharp angle is _ and temperatures _ absorbed, increased
example of positive feedback snow: light reflects, temps decreased, causes more snow
example of negative feedback desert: light reflects, temps decrease, plants form and absorb energy, temps increase
two types of igneous rock intrusive and extrusive
intrusive igneous rock crystals form due to high temperatures inside earth
extrusive igneous rock form on earth's surface, holes from gas from lava
basalt type and description igneous, not shiny, small crystals
gabbro type and description igneous, shiny, big crystals, intrusive
granite type and description intrusive igneous, big crystals, scattered colors
gneiss type and description metamorphic, crystals in bands
limestone type and description sedimentary, gritty, can have shells
marble type and description metamorphic, smooth, shiny, crystals
why are planets in a line? planets form, fusion happens, energy blows planets away
terrestrial planets rock, metals, ionic material, high boiling points
jovian planets ice and covalent material, low boiling points but cold, big
what divides terrestrial and jovian planets frost line
continental crust is made of granite
oceanic crust is made of basalt
4 elements that make up peridotite silicon, oxygen, iron, magnesium
stony chrondrites meteorite material from original solar nebula
stony achondrites meteorite material that was broken off
elastic rebound lithosphere can't bend, so it ruptures and rebounds
fault break of earthquakes
P waves pressure, compression
what is the first detected wave of earthquakes P wave
S waves shear, secondary, not through liquids
what waves of earthquakes cause the most damage surface waves
focus origin of an earthquake
denser rock has _ waves faster
seismic discontinuity velocity of wave abruptly changes
Moho discontinuity at the base of the crust
shadow zone where seismic waves can't be detected
P waves do what when meet liquid core slow down and refract
P waves shadow zone shape donut
S waves do what when meet liquid core curve around
S waves shadow zone shape bowl
curie temperature where magnetism is lost
how do we have a magnetic field iron moves in the sun's magnetic field, electrons move, electric current, magnetic field
continental shields oldest parts of a continent
transform plate boundaries slide past
what type of volcanoes form when the mantle melts sale
what type of volcanoes form when the ocean melts granite
uniformitarianism laws of nature don't change with time
5 types of relative time original horizontality, superposition, inclusion, crosscutting, faunal succession
superposition old layers are on the bottom
inclusion rock enclosed is older
faunal succession pattern of types of fossils in layers shows age
unconformities erosion or tilts that break geological time
fission-track dating radioactive decay clock for absolute time
requirements for fission-track dating known half life, sample of rock, no end product, no loss or gain of product
other ways to measure absolute time tree rings, annual layers on lakes/glaciers, sedimentation, cooling of the earth
igneous rock is produced when melted material solidify
metamorphic rock altered by melting with heat and pressure
rock cycle transformation of rock to a new type
minerals characteristics natural, no carbon, fixed chemical composition, definite crystal structure, stability limits in pressure/temp/water
types of igneous rock granite, basalt, gabbro
types of sedimentary rock limestone
types of metamorphic rock gneiss, marble
streams leave what erosion shape V
stream gradient slope of terrain
higher stream gradient has _ erosion higher
deposited sediments are base of steam salt
in river bends, outside or inside move faster outside
alluvial fan sediment at mouth of a canyon by water flow
delta sediment deposited in ocean or lake from the mouth of a river
glaciers leave what erosion shape U
moraine rock carried by a glacier
porosity amount of empty space water can fill in a rock
water table depth of ground what rock is saturated with water
over what period of time does climate change decades
Milankovitch cycles three cycles in earth's orbit: ellipse, tilt, precession/wobble
radar ranging microwave pulses, reflection, distance measured
laser ranging light reflected off nearby surface, distance measured
triangulation observed angled of object from two locations
maria large, crater free lava plains on moon- young
lunar highlands old, cratered terrain on moon- original material
asteroid small rocky objects that orbit the sun
meteorite small rock that hits the earth
comet ice and dust that orbits the sun- melting causes tails
nebular hypothesis solar system formed from cloud of gas and dust
evidence of nebular hypothesis densest planets nearest sun, planets in same plane, craters, other solar system formations, meteorites
big stars shine _ and live _ brighter, shorter
protostar before fusion
brown dwarf low mass, can't start fusion
red giant exhausted most of hydrogen
planetary nebula glowing shell of gas blown off a red giant
path of small planets' death after planetary nebula white dwarf, black dwarf
white dwarf small and hot, can't sustain fusion
black dwarf remains of cooled white dwarf
path of large planets' death after planetary nebula supernova, neutron star, black hole
neutron stars remains of a supernova explosion
massive stars pulse for longer
type Ia supernova predictable extreme brightness at explosion
4 types of galaxies elliptical, spiral, barred spiral, irregular
Created by: schooffj