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Earthquake a sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action
Crust A the tough outer part
Fault In geology, a place where sections of the crust of the
Mantle The region of the interior of the Earth between the core (on its inner surface) and the crust (on its outer).
Lithosphere Includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth.
Lithospheric Plates noun. the two sub-layers of the earth's crust (lithosphere) that move, float, and sometimes fracture and whose interaction causes continental drift, earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains
Seismologist is the study of seismic waves, energy waves caused by rock suddenly breaking apart within the earth or the slipping of tectonic plates.
P-Wave Are a type of body wave, called seismic waves in seismology, that travel through a continuum
S-Wave Shear wave, is a seismic body wave that shakes the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction the wave is moving.
Surface Wave Can also be an elastic (or a seismic) wave, such as with a Rayleigh or Love wave.
Focus The point at witch a rock under stress breaks and triggers an earthquake
Epicenter epicenter is the point on the Earth's surface that is directly above the hypocrite or focus,
Richter Scale Developed in the 1930s, is a base-10 logarithmic scale, which defines magnitude
Moment-Magnitude Moment magnitude (Mw) was introduced in 1979
Mercalli Scale Intensity scale is a seismic scale used for measuring the intensity of an earthquake.
Seismic Waves Are the waves of energy caused by the sudden breaking of rock within the earth or an explosion.
Magnitude The great size or extent of something.
Seismograph An instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes, such as force and duration.
Liquefaction Is a phenomenon in which the strength and stiffness of a soil is reduced by earthquake shaking or other rapid loading
Aftershock An aftershock is a smaller earthquake that occurs after a previous large earthquake, in the same area of the main shock.
Tsunami Also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake
Base isolators separate a building from its foundation. They also prevent some of the earthquake's energy from entering the building
Shear core walls help transfer some of an earthquake's energy from the floor and roof to the foundation.
Tension ties firmly “tie” the floors and ceilings in a building to the walls. They absorb and scatter earthquake energy to reduce damage.
Steel Cross Braces are placed between stories to stiffen a building’s frame and absorb energy during an earthquake.
Dampers work like the shock absorbs in a car to absorb some of the energy of seismic waves.
Flexible Pipes Water and gas pipes have flexible joints. Flexible pipes bend as energy passes through them, greatly reducing damage.
Compression The reduction in volume
Tension Apply a force to (something) that tends to stretch it.
Stress Importance attached to a thing
Strike-slip fault Are vertical (or nearly vertical) fractures where the blocks have mostly moved horizontally.
Normal fault Generally occur in places where the lithosphere is being stretched
Reverse fault One rocky block is pushed up relative to rock on the other side.
Shearing Strain, which is a deformation of a material substance
San Andreas fault An active strike-slip fault in W United States, extending from San Francisco
Plateau An area of flat land high elevated above sea level.
Haning wall Is the block positioned over the fault.
Foot wall Is the block positioned under it.
Anticline Are folds in which each half of the fold dips away from the crest.
Sycline Are folds in which each half of the fold dips toward the trough of the fold.
Asthenosphere It lies below the lithosphere, at depths between approximately 80 and 200 km.
Mantle Is a layer between the crust and the outer core.
Crust The crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet.
Inner Core Is the Earth's innermost part and according to seismological studies.
Outer Core The Earth is a liquid layer about 2,300 km
Lithosphere Is the solid outer section of Earth, which includes Earth's crust
Created by: 1964109916