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Unit 4: Early Child

Early childhood years 2-6.
Myelination aids in the development of the corpus callosum: connector of both brain hemispheres.
Brain has specialized functions and damage to brain can result in loss of those functions.
Plasticity the tendency of new parts of the brain to take up the functions of injured parts.
Rough-and-tumble play helps develop physical and social skills (running, chasing, fleeing, wrestling, hitting an object with hand, laughing and making faces)
Fine motor skills involve small muscles used in manipulation and coordination.
4 stages of drawing placement, shape, design, pictorial
immunizations and antibiotics reduce major illnesses.
Accidents the leading cause of death
Sleep need 11 to 13 hours in a 24-hour period
Somnambulism sleepwalking, is more common among children than adults.
Toilet training occurs between ages 3-4.
Enuresis failure to control the bladder
Encopresis lack of control over the bowels
Pre-operational Stage mental manipulations of information, and at this stage, young children’s logic is at best “under construction.”
Symbolic play may seem immature, but requires cognitive sophistication
Egocentrism one-dimensional thinking where the child is at the center and unable to perceive the world around them
Precausal Thinking inaccurate type of thinking about natural causes of events
Animistic Thinking attributing life and intentions to inanimate objects
Scaffolding temporary support provided by a parent or teacher to learning children, which decreases as children become more proficient.
Zone of Proximal Development area in which children develop new cognitive skills as a function of working with more skilled people, who teach and guide them.
Sesame Street is most successful educational program.
Appearance – Reality Distinction development of the understanding between real events on one hand, and mental events or fantasies on the other.
Memory is facilitated by children talking about the event
Fast-mapping attaching new word to the appropriate concept
Whole-object assumption words refer to whole objects and not to their parts or characteristics
Pragmatics children adjust their speech depending on the social situation
Interactionist view language precedes and follows cognition
Parenting is classified into 2 dimensions.
Warm parents are affectionate (kisses and hugs), caring, supportive and communicate enjoyment
Cold parents may not enjoy children and have few feelings of affection,
3 types of enforcement Inductive, power-assertive, threaten-to-withdraw-love
Authoritative they are highly restrictive and make strong demands for maturity, including reasoning and showing strong support and love.
Authoritarian value obedience for its own sake with strict guidelines about right and wrong without question.
Permissive-indulgent low in their attempts to control children and in their demands for mature behavior; they’re easygoing, unconventional and very high nurturing.
Rejecting-neglecting low in demands for mature behavior and low in attempts to control behavior; they are low in support and responsiveness.
Regression baby-like behaviors that follow the birth of a new child
Functional play beginning of sensorimotor) repetitive motor activity, such as rolling a ball, running, laughing
Symbolic play create settings, characters and scripts
Constructive play drawing & building
Formal games play rules & invention
Altruism behavior intended to benefit another without expectation of reward
Empathy sensitivity to the feelings of others
Aggression behavior intended to hurt or injure another person
Self-concept sense of self
Categorical self self-definitions that refer to concrete external traits (baby, child, adult, boy, girl)
Initiative v. Guilt (Erikson's Stage) Children strive to achieve independence from their parents and master adult behaviors.
Stereotype fixed, conventional idea about a group
Gender roles broader, cultural expectations about behavior “masculine” “feminine”
Hippocampus contributes to differentiation in gendered behavior.
Social Cognitive Theory both the roles of rewards and punishments in gender typing and the ways in which children learn from observing others help children decide which behaviors are appropriate for them.
Cognitive Developmental Theory children form concepts and then mold behavior to fit their concepts
Created by: avilaspanish