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Human Comm Test 2

Non-Verbal Communication Any communication without words
How can we know what non-verbals mean? Check the context, compare current behavior to baseline behavior, ask for verbal feedback.
Why is non-verbal communication sometimes unintentional? As receivers, we should not assume that every non-verbal act is an intentional message. Some verbal communication is subconscious and exists simply because we are animated beings. We should always check for alternative interpretations.
We should try to make our verbal and nonverbal communication _______ and ________ congruent and clear
How does non-verbal communication provide relational information? Liking is indicated through facial expression, eye contact, and proximity, and by the objects we display. Emotional expression is conveyed through non-verbal communication
Understand how non-verbal messages are used in conjunction with non-verbal messages. Non-verbal messages should make our verbal messages congruent and clear
Define and apply the term repeating. Repeats the verbal message.
Define and apply the term substituting. Substitutes for the verbal message
Define and apply the term complementing. The non-verbal message modifies the verbal message letting the receiver know how to take it
Define and apply the term accenting non-verbal cues emphasize the verbal message
Define and apply the term regulating the non-verbal message manages and controls behavior
Kinesic behaviors whose direct verbal translations are known to all members of a social group emblems
Gestures that accompany speech and add to the meaning of utterances illustrators
Consists of head nods and eye and hand movements that allow us to maintain, request, and deny others, or return to talk. They act as "traffic signals" during interaction Regulators
Body movements that convey emotional states displays
When a person is lying, he or she generally experiences heightened emotional arousal. If this arousal is not suppressed, it will act as a ____________ Leakage cue
Behaviors people use to adapt to stresses and satisfy personal needs. They are a good source of information about emotions Adaptors
Some cultures consider a lack of emotional display appropriate Cultural display rules
Rules for facial expression based on career considerations are called _____________ Professional display rules
The study of sounds that accompany words paralinguistics
Includes vocal qualities of the voice, such as pitch, tone, and intonation patterns paralanguage
Special sounds that convey meaning, such as groans and cries Vocalizations
Pauses and fillers such as "um" and "uh" Vocal segregates
The study of time as it affects human behavior Chronemics
The study of how we use space and what space means to us proxemics
The partner's behaviors lead to increasing levels of involvement and satisfaction progressive spirals
When misunderstanding leads to more misunderstanding. Eventually damaging a relationship Regressive spirals
initiating stage Partners try to create favorable initial impressions, carefully observe each other for cues about personality, attitudes, and a willingness to engage in further interactions
experimenting stage Partners look for common ground upon which to build their relationship. It consists of phatic communication or small talk.
intensifying stage Individuals make initial moves towards greater involvement. Self-disclosure increases, and the use of nicknames and terms of endearment become more common.
integrating stage The individuals become a couple both in their own and in other's eyes. Attitudes and interests are shared and social circles merge
bonding stage Consists of a public ritual to legitimize a relationship. (ie a marriage)
differentiating stage A couple beings to notice and comment on previously overlooked differences. Partners discover substantial areas of disagreement, which can then become major topics of conversation. Overt argument and conflict are hallmarks of this stage
circumscribing stage Members carefully restrict their communication. Certain topics are placed "off limits" because they are too painful
stagnating stage This stage is characterized by silence and inactivity. communication is infrequence, and when it does occur, it is stylized, rigid and awkward, as thought the partners were strangers
avoiding stage Partners separate either physically or emotionally
sociological level rules Are tied to group membership and are used when people belong to a specific group within our culture
psychological level rules Partners in an interaction make up the rules themselves
Self disclosure Occurs when one person voluntarily tells another person things about himself in which the other is unlikely to know or discover from other sources. It is the voluntary revealing of information that would normally be obtainable in interpersonal relationsh
Expressive-Protective dialectic Involves finding balance between the need to share personal information and to maintain privacy
Autonomy-togetherness dialectic Here friends and couples decide how interdependent they want to be
Novelty-Predictability dialectic Finding a balance between life's routines and change. Some people get bored with the same routine, while others get security from continued routines. The key here is balance between the two
Disconfirmations rejecting responses that leave us with a diminished sense of self-respect
Impervious response Fails to acknowledge a message
Irrelevant response People burst into conversations and immediately change the subject to something that has no bearing on what was said before
Tangential response An individual briefly acknowledges the topic but then goes on to discuss his or her interests
Paradoxes Double messages that have mixed meanings
Terminating Stage The final stage in relational disengagement. If both parties are aware that their relationship is dissolving, it may come as a relief or it may be a heart-wrenching suprise
Social penetration model All relationship develop intimacy through self-disclosure. As couples voluntarily engage in self-disclosure increasing int he breadth of topics discussed as well as the depth of those topics, intimacy is created and maintained
Characteristics of a group 1. Develop through interaction 2. Behavior of members become interdependent 3. Separate individuals become a functioning whole 4. The stronger and more cohesive group members have about their sense of membership, the stronger their collective identity
Advantages of communicating in groups 1. More input than individuals 2. Provide support and commitment 3. Can meet individual's personal needs.
Interpersonal needs the need for inclusion, control, and affection
Inclusion need the need to establish identity by associating with others
Control need: the need to prove one's worth and competence by making effective decisions.
Affection need the need to develop close, caring relationships with others
Groupthink A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involves in a cohesive group, when the members' striving for unanimity override their motivation to realisticly appraise alternative courses of action
Symptoms of groupthink Illusions of invulnerability, belief in the group's own morality, shared stereotypes, collective rationalizations, self-censorship, illusions of unanimity, pressure on dissenters, mind-guards.
Illusions of invulnerability A group immersed in groupthink believes so strongly is is the best that is loses all sense of reality
Belief in the group's own morality Members feel that their actions and beliefs are more valuable than those of people outside the group
Shared stereotypes Members take on an "us versus them" mentality
Collective rationalizations Explain problems or failutres
Self-censorship Individual members who being to doubt the group feel strong pressures toward self-censorship (they do not express their doubts)
Illusions of unanimity A doubting member will believe that everyone else agrees with the chosen action
Pressure on dissenters If a dissenting member speaks up, he or she is severely sanctioned
Mind-guards "protect" the group from negative information
Four phases of Fisher's Model of Group Development Orientation phase, conflict phase, emergence stage, reinforcement stage
Orientation phase Group members begin the complex process of becoming interdependent. It is marked by primary tension
Conflict phase Group members experience a new kind of stress called secondary tension
Emergence stage members who have opposed the leading solution begin to back down, replacing their earlier strong disagreement with noncommittal somewhat ambiguous comments
Reinforcement stage Members bolster their decision through the expression of favorable comments and positive reinforcement
Characteristics of a good leader Persistence, intelligence, originality, self-confidence, and the ability to handle stress
Democratic leadership style When leaders have the final word, yet draw on the expertise of individual group members
Authoritarian or autocratic leadership style Leader has absolute power, and power is not evenly distributed among group members
Laissez-Faire leadership Leader simply fails to lead, and the group is left "leaderless" in making their own decisions
Defensive climate group members feel threatened
Supportive climate Group members feel positive toward other group members and feel free to share their ideas
Evaluation vs Description Leaders must no continually evaluate a person's behavior, but offer a description of behavior that does not place blame on someone else when problems arise
Control vs Problem Leaders should avoid controlling their employees' behaviors and instead focus on the problem and not imply that the employee IS the problem.
Strategy vs Spontaneity Strategy is another word for manipulating an employee without being honest, and this will create defensive behaviors. Spontaneity consists of open and honest communication, and employees will feel supported by the leader if they are honest and open
Neutrality vs. Empathy Neutrality causes defensive behaviors because it communicates to the employees that a leader is not concerned for them as human beings. Empathy creates a positive communication environment and will make an effective leader
Superiority vs Equality If a leader projects the persona that he is superior, or worth more than the employees, that leader will create defensiveness in his employees. A leader expresses equality when he shows that his employees' ideas are just as important
Certainty vs. Provisionalism If a person communicates that he is right all the time and is never open to employees' ideas, he or she will create a defensive communication climate. An effective leader should avoid defensive behaviors and establish supportive ones
Situational approach to leadership This occurs when a leader primarily uses a democratic leadership style, but in times of crisis or strict deadlines may shift to an authoritarian style to make quick, important decisions
Organization A system consisting of a large number of people working together in a structured way to accomplish multiple goals
Interdependence in organizations Means that all the members within an organization are connected to one another
Hierarchical structure A system that is divided into orders and ranks. (like a bureaucracy)
Bureaucracies Have a clear chain of command. Every member of the organization reports to someone who is responsible for overseeing his or her work. Jobs are usually specialized and employees are rewarded on the basis of performance
Be able to explain why organizations are dependent on communication Tom D. Daniels points out that we should not think of organizations as "things" but rather as elaborate and complicated forms of human behavior. One of the most important kind of behavior is communication
Climate organizational identity
Structurational approach the belied that there is a reciprocal relationship between organizational structures and organization communication
How communication in the organizational context differs from every day or interpersonal communication (Choice and power) The organization chooses who we work with, and levels of power are matched with levels of authority; therefore, you cannot talk to tour boss the way you would talk to a friend
Information flow The path information takes as it passes through the organization. The effective use of communication channels was directly linked to organizational effectiveness and employee satisfaction
Formal channels of communication formal channels of communication occur when information flows through a structured chain of command officially recognized by the organization
Channels of communication informal channels of communication occur when a more personal and less structure path occur
Organizational chart A visual representation of the organization's chain of command
Downward flow Occurs when someone from near the top of the organization sends a message to someone near the bottom
Horizontal flow Takes place when communication occurs between people at the same level
Upward flow When a message travels from the bottom of the chart toward the top
Downward communication When a supervisor discusses the results of a yearly evaluation with a subordinate or explains travel policies to new employees, the supervisor is using downward communication
Three reasons why employees in most organizations report dissatisfaction with downward communication Inadequacy of information. Inappropriate means of diffusing information. Filtering of information. General persuasive climate of dominance and submission
Inadequacy of information There is not enough information to be completely informed of a situation
Inappropriate means of diffusing information Information goes through too many channels so that the message is inaccurate when it reaches people that are ranked lower within the organization
Filtering of information Information is filtered for specific reasons to benefit those in authority of an organization rather than those whoa re lower in rank. some information is intentionally left out
Gatekeeper is someone who is in a position to pass or disregard information (Gene Kranz from Apollo 13 was a gatekeeper during the mission)
Ombudsman This person's job is to listen to lower levels of the organization to pass their concerns directly to the top
Factors that can make horizontal communication ineffective When experts who have been trained in different areas try to work together. Differences in the way workers approach problems can get in the way. Use of technical jargon from the various fields. Territoriality may raise its ugly head.
Grapevine Means that information came through an informal channel
Network Analysis A method of mapping informal communication patterns. network analysts can identify who is connected to whom in the organization. They can also specify the role each individual plays in an informal role
Opinion leaders These people are at the center of things, and they are the first person others go to for information
Tight coupling subunits within an organization that are closely connected and are highly interdependent
Loose coupling when the relationship between subunits in an organization is relatively weak. each unit acts in a relatively independent fashion and an event that influences on unit may have only indirect effects on others.
Power in professional relationships Organizations are hierarchial, thus differences in power and status are natural and expected. Even though everyone has contributions to make, they should also recognize role and status differences
Choice in professional relationships. We choose friends. We do not choose our coworkers
Created by: Winn_Winn