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Non Rubenstein Vocab

QuestionAnswer
Accessibility the opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location, in relation to other locations
Acid rain the wet deposition of acids upon Earth created by the natural cleansing prosperities of the atmosphere.
Age-sex pyramid a representation of the population based on its composition according to age and sex
Agglomeration diseconomics the negative economic effects of urbanization and the local concentration of industry
Agglomeration effects cost advantages that accrue to individual firms because of their location among functionally related activities
Agrarian referring to the culture of agricultural communities and the type of tenure system that determines access to land and the kind of cultivation practices employed there.
Agricultural industrialization process whereby the farm has moved from being the centerpiece of agricultural production to become one part of an integrated string of vertically organized industrial processes including production, storage, processing, distribution, marketing, and retai
Ancillary activities activities such as maintenance, repair, security, and haulage services that serve a variety of industries.
Animistic perspective on nature the view that natural phenomena-both animate and inanimate possess an indwelling spirit or consciousness
Azimuthal projection a map projection on which compass directions are correct only from one central point
Baby boom population of individuals born between the years 1946 and 1964
Backwash effects the negative impacts on a region (or regions) of the economic growth of some other region
Basic functions economic activities that provide income from sales to customers beyond city limits
Beaux Arts a style of urban design that sought to combine the best elements of all of the classic architectural styles.
Biotechnology technique that uses living organisms (or parts of organisms) to make or modify products, to improve plants and animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses
Buddhist perspective on nature the view that nothing exists in and of itself and everything is part of natural, complex, and dynamic totality of mutuality and interdependence.
Carrying capacity the maximum number of users that can be sustained, over the long term, by a given set of natural resources.
Central cities the original, core jurisdictions of metropolitan areas.
Central place theory a theory that seeks to explain the relative size and spacing of towns and cities as a function of people’s shopping behavior.
Centrality the functional dominance of cities within and urban system
Centrifugal forces forces that divide or tend to pull the state apart.
Chemical farming application of synthetic fertilizers to the soil- and herbicides, fungicides, and pesticides to crops- in order to enhance yields.
City Beautiful movement attempt to remake cities in ways that would reflect the higher values of society, using neoclassical architecture, grandiose street plans, parks, and inspirational monuments and statues.
Clovis point a flaked, bifaced projectile whose length is more than twice its width
Cognitive images (mental maps) psychological representations of locations that are made up from people’s individual ideas and impressions of these locations
Cognitive space space defined and measured in terms of the nature and degree of people’s values, feelings, beliefs, and perceptions about locations, districts, and regions
Cohort a group of individuals who share a common temporal demographic experience.
Colonial city city that was deliberately established or developed as an administrative or commercial center by colonial or imperial powers
Columbian exchange interaction between the Old World, originating with the voyages of Columbus, and the New World
Commodity chain network of labor and production processes beginning with the extraction or production of raw materials and ending with the delivery of a finished commodity.
Comparative advantage principle whereby places and regions specialize in activities for which they have the greatest advantage in productivity relative to other regions- or for which they have the least disadvantage.
Confederation a group of states united for a common purpose
Conformal projection a map projection on which compass bearings are rendered accurately
Conglomerate corporations companies that have diversified into various economic activities, usually through a process of mergers and acquisitions
Congregation the territorial and residential clustering of specific groups of subgroups of people
Conservation the view that natural resources should be used wisely, and that society’s effects on the natural world should represent stewardship and not exploitation
Core regions regions that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, and have high levels of productivity within diversified economics
Cosmopolitanism an intellectual and esthetic openness toward divergent experiences, images, and products from different cultures.
Creative destruction the withdrawal of investments from activities (and regions) that yield low rates of profit, in order to reinvest in new activities (and new places)
Cultural adaptation the complex strategies of human groups employ to live successfully as part of a natural system
Cultural complex combination of traits characteristic of a particular group
Cultural geography how space, place, and landscape shape culture at the same time that culture shapes space, place, and landscape.
Cultural hearths the geographic origins or sources of innovations, ideas, or ideologies.
Cultural landscape a characteristic and tangible outcome of the complex interactions between a human group and a natural environment
Cultural nationalism an effort to protect regional and national cultures from the homogenizing impacts of globalization, especially from the penetrating influence of US culture
Cultural region the areas within which a particular cultural system prevails.
Cultural system a collection of interacting elements that taken together shape a group’s collective identity.
Cultural trait a single aspect of the complex of routine practices that constitute a particular cultural group
Cumulative causation a spiral build up of advantages that occurs in specific geographic settings as a result of the development of external economics, agglomeration effects, and localization economies.
Cycle of poverty transmission of poverty and deprivation from one generation to another through a combination of domestic circumstances and local, neighborhood conditions.
Decolonization the acquisition, by colonized peoples, of control over their own territory
Deep ecology approach to nature revolving around two key components egalitarianism
Deforestation the removal of trees from a forested area without adequate replanting
Deindustrialization a relative decline in industrial employment in core regions
Democratic rule a system in which public policies and officials are directly chosen by popular vote
Demographic collapse phenomenon of near genocide of native populations
Derelict landscapes landscapes that have experienced abandonment, misuse, disinvestment, or vandalism
Diaspora a spatial dispersion of a previously homogeneous group
Digital divide inequality of access to telecommunications and information technology, particularly the Internet
Division of labor the specialization of different people, regions, or countries in particular kinds of economic activities
Domino theory if one country in a region chose or was forced to accept a communist political and economic system, then neighboring countries would be irresistibility susceptible to falling to communism
Dualism the juxtaposition in geographic space of the formal and informal sectors of the economy
East/West divide communist and noncommunist countries, respectively
Ecofeminism the view that patriarchal ideology is at the center of our present environmental malaise
Ecological imperialism introduction of exotic plants and animals into new ecosystems
Eco-migration population movement caused by the degradation of land and essential natural resources
Economies of scale cost advantages to manufacturers that accrue from high-volume production, since the average cost of production falls with increasing output
Ecosystem a community of different species interacting with each other and with the larger physical environment that surrounds it
Environmental ethics a philosophical perspective on nature that prescribes moral principles as guidance for our treatment of it
Environmental justice movement reflecting a growing political consciousness, largely among the world’s poor, that their immediate environs are far more toxic than those in wealthier neighborhoods
Equal-area (equivalent) projection a map projection that portrays areas on the earth’s surface in their true proportions
Equidistant projection a map projection that allows distance to be represented as accurately as possible
Ethnocentrism the attitude that one’s own race and culture are superior to others’
Ethology the scientific study of the formation and evolution of human customs and beliefs
Export-processing zones (EPZs) small areas within which especially favorable investment and trading conditions are created by governments in order to attract export-oriented industries
External arena regions of the world not yet absorbed into the modern world-system
External economies cost savings that result from circumstances beyond a firm’s own organization and methods of production
Farm crisis the financial failure and eventual foreclosure of thousands of family farms across the U.S. Midwest
Fast world people, places, and regions directly involved, as producers and consumers, in transnational industry, modern telecommunications, materialistic consumption, and international news and entertainment
Fiscal squeeze increasing limitations on city revenues, combined with increasing demands for expenditure
Food chain five central and connected sectors (inputs, production, product processing, distribution, and consumption) with four contextual elements acting as external mediating forces (the State, international trade, the physical environment, and credit, and financ
Food manufacturing adding value to agricultural products through a range of treatments- such as processing, canning, refining, packing, and packaging- that occur off the farm and before they reach the market
Food regime specific set of links that exists among food production and consumption and capital investment and accumulation opportunities
Foreign direct investment the total of overseas business investments made by private companies
Friction of distance the deterrent of inhibiting effect of distance on human activity
Gateway city a city that serves as a link between one country or region and others because of its physical situation
Gender the social differences between men and women rather than the anatomical differences that are related to sex
Genre de vie a functionally organized way of life that is seen to be characteristic of a particular culture group
Geodemographic analysis practice of assessing the location and composition of particular populations
Geodemographic research uses census data and commercial data (such as sales data and property records) about the populations of small districts in creating profiles of those populations for market research
Geographical imagination the capacity to understand changing patterns, changing processes, and changing relationships among people, places, and regions.
Geographical path dependence the historical relationship between the present activities associated with a place and the past experiences of that place
Geopolitics the stat’s power to control space or territory and shape the foreign policy of individual states and international political relations
Gerrymandering the practice of redistricting for partisan purposes
Global Positioning System a system of satellites which orbit the earth on precisely predictable path, broadcasting highly accurate time and locational information
Globalized Agriculture a system of food production increasingly dependent upon an economy and set of regulatory practices that are global in scope and organization
Gross migration the total number of migrants moving into and out of a place, country, or region
Gross National Product (GNP) similar to GDP, but also includes the value of income from abroad
Growth poles economic activities that are deliberately organized around one or more high-growth industries.
Hearth areas geographic settings where new practices have developed, and from which they have subsequently spread
Hegemony domination over the world economy, exercised by one national state in a particular historical epoch through a combination of economic, military, financial, and cultural means.
Hinterland the sphere of economic influence of a town or city
Historical geography the geography of the past
Human geography the study of the spatial organization of human activity and of people’s relationships with their environments
Humanistic approach places the individual- especially individual values, meaning systems, intentions, and conscious acts- at the center of analysis
Hunting and gathering activities whereby people feed themselves through killing wild animals and fish and gathering fruits, roots, nuts, and other edible plants to sustain themselves.
Import substitution the process by which domestic producers provide goods or services that formerly were bought from foreign producers
Informal sector economic activities that take place beyond official record, not subject to formalized systems ofregulation or remuneration
Infrastructure (or fixed social capital) the underlying framework of services and amenities needed to facilitate productive activity
Initial advantage the critical importance of an early start in economic development; a special case of external economies
International organization group that includes two or more states seeking political and/or economic cooperation with each other
Intertillage practice of mixing different seeds and seedlings in the same swidden
Invasion and succession a process of neighborhood change whereby one social or ethnic group succeeds another
Islamic perspective on nature the view that the heavens and Earth were made for human purposes
Isotropic surface a hypothetical, uniform plain
Judeo-Christian perspective on nature the view that nature was created by God and is subject to God in the same way that a child is subject to parents
Landscape as text the ideas that landscapes can be read and written by groups and individuals
Law of diminishing returns the tendency for productivity to decline, after a certain point, with the continued application of capital and/or labor to a given resource base.
Leadership cycles periods of international power established by individual states though economic, political, and military competition
Localization economies cost savings that accrue to particular industries as a result of clustering together at a specific location
Map projection a systematic rendering on a flat surface of the geographic coordinates of the features found on Earth’s surface
Masculinism the assumption tat the world is, and should be, shaped mainly by men, for men
Mechanization the replacement of human farm labor with machines
Megacity very large city characterized by both primacy and high centrality within its national economy
Middle cohort members of the population 15 to 64 years of age who are considered economically active and productive
Minisystem a society with a single cultural base and a reciprocal social economy
Minority groups population subgroups that are seen –or that see themselves- as somehow different from the general population
Modern movement the idea that buildings and cities should be designed and run like machines
Modernity a forward-looking view of the world that emphasizes reason, scientific rationality, creativity, novelty, and progress
Nation a group of people often sharing common elements of culture such as religion or language, or history of political identity
Natural decrease difference between the CDR and CBR, which is the deficit of births relative to deaths
Nature a social creation as well as the physical universe that includes human beings
Neocolonialism economic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies indirectly maintain or extend their influence over other area or peoples
Nonbasic functions economic activities that serve a city’s own population
North/South divide the differentiation made between the colonizing states of the Northern Hemisphere and the formerly colonized states of the Southern Hemisphere
Nutritional density ratio between the total population and the amount of land under cultivation in a given unit of area
Offshore financial centers islands or micro-states that have become a specialized node in the geography of worldwide financial flows.
Old-age cohort members of the population 65 years of age and older who are considered beyond their economically active and productive years
Ordinary landscapes (vernacular landscapes) the everyday landscapes that people create in the course of their lives
Overurbanization condition in which cities grow more rapidly than the jobs and housing they can sustain
Paleolithic period the period when chipped-stone tools first began to be used
Pastoralism subsistence activity that involves the breeding and herding of animals to satisfy the human needs of food, shelter, and clothing
Peripheral regions regions with undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity
Political ecology approach to cultural geography that studies human-environment relations thought the relationships of patterns of resource use to political and economic
Postmodern urban design style characterized by a diversity of architectural styles and elements, often combined in the same building or project
Postmoderntiy a view of the world that emphasizes an openness to a range of perspectives in social inquiry, artistic expression, and political empowerment.
Preservation an approach to nature advocating that certain habitats, species, and resources should remain off-limits tohuman use, regardless of whether the use maintains or depletes the resource in question
Primacy condition in which the population of the largest city in an urban system is disproportionately large in relationto the second- and third-largest cities in that system
Primary activities economic activities that are concerned directly with natural resources of any kind
Proxemics the study of social and cultural meanings that people give to personal space
Quaternary activities economic activities that deal with the handling and processing of knowledge and information
Range the maximum distance that consumers will normally travel to obtain a particular product or service
Rank-size rule a statistical regularity in city-size distributions of cities and regions
Reapportionment the process of allocating electoral seats to geographical areas
Redistricting the defining and redefining of territorial district boundaries
Regional geography the study of the ways in which combinations of environmental and human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes and cultural attributes
Regionalism a feeling of collective identity based on a population’s politico-territorial identification within a state or across state boundaries
Religion belief system and a set of practices that recognize the existence of a power higher than humans
Rites of passage the ceremonial acts, customs, practices, or procedures that recognize key transitions in human life such as birth, menstruation, and other markers of adulthood such as marriage.
Romanticism philosophy that emphasizes interdependence and relatedness between humans and nature
Sacred space an area recognized by individuals or groups as worthy of special attention as a site of special religious experiences or events
Secondary Activities economic activities that process, transform, fabricate, or assemble the raw material derived from primary activities, or that reassemble, refinish, or package manufactured goods.
Sectionalism extreme devotion to local interests and customs
Segregation the spatial separation of specific population subgroups within a wider population
Semiotics the practice of writing and reading signs
Semiperipheral regions regions that are able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated
by core regions
Sense of place feelings evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories that they associate with a place and to the symbolism that they attach to it
Sexuality ser of practices and identities that a given culture considers related to each other and to those things it considers sexual acts and desires
Shock city city that is seen as the embodiment of surprising and disturbing changes in economic, social, and culturallife.
Siltation the buildup of sand and clay in a natural or artificial waterway
Slow world people, places, and regions whose participation in transnational industry, modern telecommunications, materialistic consumption, ad international news and entertainment is limited
Society sum of the inventions, institutions, and relationships created and reproduced by human beings across particularplaces and times
Spatial diffusion the way that things spread thought space and over time
Spatial justice the fairness of the distribution of society’s burdens and benefits, taking in to account spatial variationsin people’s needs and in their contribution to the production of wealth and social well-being
Spread effects the positive impacts on a region (or regions) of the economic growth of some other region
Suburbanization growths of population along the fringes of large metropolitan areas
Supranational organizations collections of individual states with a common goal that may be economic and/or political in nature; such organizations diminish, to some extent, individual state sovereignty in favor of the group interests of the membership
Symbolic landscapes representations of particular values or aspirations that the builders and financiers of those landscapes want to impart to a larger public
Taoist perspective on nature the view that nature should be values for its own sake, not for how it might be exploited
Technology physical objects or artifacts, activities or processes, and knowledge or know-how
Technology systems clusters interrelated energy, transportation, and production technologies that dominate economic activity for several decades at a time
Territorial organization a system of government formally structured by area, not by social groups
Territoriality the specific attachment of individuals or peoples to a specific location or territory
Territory the delimited area over which a states exercises control and which is recognized by other states
Time-space convergence the rate at which places move closer together in travel or communication time or costs
Topological space the connections between, or connectivity of, particular places that have become significant to individuals
Topophilia the emotions and meanings associated with particular places that have become significant to individuals
Transcendentalism a philosophy in which a person attempts to rise above nature and the limitations of the body to the point where the spirit dominates the flesh
Underemployment when people work less than full time even though they would prefer to work more hours
Urban ecology the social and demographic composition of city districts and neighborhoods
Urban form the physical structure and organization of cities
Urban system an interdependence set of urban settlements within a specified region
Urbanism the ways of life, attitudes, values, and patterns of behavior fostered by urban settlements
Urbanization economies external economies that accrue to producers because of the packages of infrastructure,ancillary activities, labor, and markets typically associated with urban settings
Utility the usefulness of a specific place or location to a particular person or group
Virgin soil epidemics conditions in which the population at risk has no natural immunity or previous exposure to disease within the lifetime of the oldest member of the group
Visualization computer-assisted representation of spatial data, often involving three-dimensional images andinnovative perspectives, in order to reveal spatial patterns and relationships more effectively
Vital records information about births, deaths, marriages, divorces, and the incidence of certain infectious diseases.
World city a city in which a disproportionate part of the world’s most important business is conducted
World-empire minisystems that have been absorbed into common political system while retaining their fundamentalcultural differences
World-system an interdependence system of countries linked by economic and political competition
Youth cohort members of the population who are less than 15 years of age and generally considered to be too young to be fully active in the labor force
Zone in transition area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD
Created by: Weston Sandfort Weston Sandfort on 2009-02-08



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