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8th Science

Chapter 4 - A Beka Book

Weathering The process by which rocks are broken down by the forces of nature
Physical weathering the breakdown of large rocks into fragments by physical forces such as ice temperature and grit
Physical weathering does not change the ___ ___ of the minerals that compose a rock chemical composition
Ice wedging occurs when rainwater r melted ice soaks into tiny cracks in a rock and freezes
Exfoliation the process of weathering which involves the breaking or peeling away of rock in layers
At the base of the mountain or cliff the broken fragments collected in huge piles of rock are called ___. talus
Chemical weathering When minerals in a rock react chemically with air or water, the minerals may weaken or even dissolve away causing the rock the crumble
The main agent of chemical weathering is ___. water
Carbonic acid A weak acid produced when carbon dioxide in the air dissolves in rain or groundwater
Oxidation A process in which the oxygen in air and water reacts with minerals like calcium and form new compounds
Chemical weathering changes the ___ of the original mineral(s). composition
Chemical weathering is usually a(n) ___ process. slow
Erosion Once rocks have undergone weathering physical processes like wind or running water may carry away the rock fragment by this
Caves networks of underground cavities
The process of erosion often begins with ___. rain
Runnoff The excess water that occurs during a heavy rain in which more water falls than the ground can evaporate.
___ is a major source of runoff. Snow
Rills Narrow shallow cuts in the soil
Gully A channel in the ground that cannot be repaired by ordinary cultibation
The process of that forms gullys Gullying
Ravine What a gully forms into if the process of gullying is not stopped; fills wildly with water in rainstorms but dries up quickly
Of all the forces of erosion, ___ ___ has the greatest effect on the earth's surface running water
Rivers Large streams that carry water form the mountains to the sea
Headwaters the source of a river; brooks and streams that are in mountainous or northerly areas
Load The material carried by a stream
River sediments are said to be ___, or arranged into layers according to their size. sorted
River system Consists of all the streams that merge and flow toward the sea as a large river
The region of land drained by a river system Drainage basin (aka. water-shed)
Drainage divide Separates two adjoining drainage basins
Great Divide The western drainage divide of the Mississippi River Drainage Basin
Eastern Continental Divide The eastern drainage divide of the Mississippi River Drainage Basin
Tributaries Numerous streams that continue to feed into the river at various points along its course
The level or early level land that borders a river and is covered by water in flood time floodplain
levees natural ridges that form along the edges of a river's channel
Meanders winding looping curves in a river
When a meander is bypassed and becomes cutoff from the rest of the river it forms a crescent shaped body of water known as a(n) ___ ___. oxbow lake
Delta a fa shaped or triangular depsoit extending from mouth of river to sea; forms when rives reach the ocean and deposits a load of sediment
The sediments are left on the plain in a delta-like deposit called a(n) ___ ___. alluvial fan
Large caves formed from limestone caverns
Dripstone Calcium carbonate deposited by water droplets
Stalactite dripstone that hangs from the ceiling
Stalagmite dripstone that is on the fllor
Column Dripstone formation that occurs when a stalactite and stalagmite form
A large funnel-shaped depression in the ground sinkhole
karst Regions of the earth's surface where limestone is exposed and abundant
___ and ___ continually change the shape of the shoreline. Waves, currents
Beaches gently sloping coasts covered by sand or pebbles
Beaches are among the most ___ ___ of all shoreline features rapidly changing
Bars ridges of sand or gravel that waves and currents build
The body of water lying between the barrier island and the coast sound
Promontories high ridges of rock and land that project out into the sea along deep-water shorelines
A vertical face of rock sea cliff
Sea caves Sea archesIndentations in a sea cliff
Sea arches narrow formations of rock that arch out into the water from the coastforms form the continued erosion of sea caves
Glacier A thick ice sheet that slowly moves under its own weight
Continental glacier vast sheets of glacial ice that cover immense areas of relatively flat land
Ice caps smaller ice sheets
Valley glaciers "rivers of ice" that slowly flow down form mountainous regions into valleys
Crevasses deep cracks and fissures in the surface of a glacier
cirque a huge bowl shaped depression
A sharp ridge that divides two cirques arete
When three or more cirques cut into a mountain peak, they transform it into a sharp, steeple shaped point called a(n) ___. horn
Sometimes glaciers carve out valleys along the coastline; as the glacier melts, the valley fills with seawater, creating a ___. fjord
Large hard rocks pushed along by the glacier produce deep grooves and scratches called ___ in the bedrock. striae
Till Formed when a glacier partially melts, or retreats, during warmer weather, the huge quantities of these broken rocks that it carries are dumped on the rcok
Maraine An accumulation of till left by a retreating glacier
When a glacier advances again in the winter, it may overrun its old moraines, smoothing the till into low hills called ___. drumlins
As the glacier melts, streams of water called ___ often develop beneath it washing sand gravel and other sediments from beneath the ice; these deposits are called ___. meltwater, outwash
Kettles Large holes left form the melting of huge hunks of glacial ice lodged in till or otuwash
Kettle lake Forms when a kettle fills with water
Terminal moraines Piles of debris left at the front of the glacier
Snout the front of the glacier
Lateral moraines piles of debris left along the side of the glacer
Ground moraines Piles of debris from the bottom of the glacier
Medial moraines Piles of debris left by the middle of a retreating glacier
Glaciers were once much more ___ than they are now. extensive
Ice Age A period of widespread glaciation
Glaciers and cold weather did not cover the ___ ___ during the Ice Age. entire earth
Aeolian process Features such as sandstone arches and uniquely shaped rocks are the result of this process
Wind transports sediments by what three methods? 1. Suspension 2. Saltation 3. Creep
Suspension Carries fine particles over long distances
Saltation Bigger particles that are lifted for a short distance and then dropped abruptly
Creep when the wind cannot lift the particles so they are rolled in short bursts through this process
The most important effect of wind erosion is ___. deflation
Deflation The removal of loose particles of sand and soil by the wind
Blowouts The wind often forms these shallow depression where material has been blown away
Sandstorms Typically carry coarse sand particles and fine particles of dry soil and occur in deserts
Dust storms Carry only dust
Areas where soil is blown away are ___, but areas where the soil is deposited are ___. harmed, improved
A huge deposit of clay and silt Loess
Sand dunes huge heaps of loose windblown sand common is deserts and near beaches
Windward side of a dune The side of the dune that faces the wind
Leeward side The side facing away from the sind
Crescentic dunes Most common dune; the points face away from the wind
Parbolic dunes arch-shaped and superficially similar to crescentic dunes except that the open end of the arch points to the windward instead of leeward side
Tranverse dunes Resemble ocean swells or wives lie in straight lines perpendicular to the direction of the winds
Star dune look like a pyramid with several out reaching arms
Abrasion The eroding action of windblown sand
When rock is loosened by weathering it is subject to what? erosion by gravity
Mass wasting The process in which gravity causes the down-slope movements of rock soil volcanic ash snow or ice
Soil creep The slow down-slope movement of soil and rock fragments; the most g widespread form of slow mass wasting
Mudflows Rapid movements of loose water saturated soil
A mass of ice and snow abruptly dislodging from a mountain face forms a(n) ___. avalanche
Landslides are what? Sudden slides of huge masses of rack or soil down a slope
Debris slide Involves rock fragments and other loose materials found in coarse soil
Earth slide Made of fine soil and small pebbles
A landslide consisting primarily of bedrock a rock slide
Rock fall Form of mass wasting that occurs when individual rock fragments abruptly break off the sides of a steep cliff
Terracing The modifying of a smooth slope into a series of level stair-like steps
Strip croppimng to plant alternate strips of erosion prone crops with strips of erosion preventing crops
Breakwater Objects designed to reduce the force of waves
Created by: nelsonclan