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when was the minion society arose? late third millennium B.C.E.
2200 and 1450 B.C.E., center of Mediterranean commerce
what type of writing was used? Linear A
when was minoan society dominated? 1100 B.C.E.
Indo-European immigrants settled in .... Mycenaean society
what was liner A changed to? linear B
who protected agricultural settlements? Stone fortresses in the Peloponnesus
Chaos in the eastern Mediterranean after when?. Trojan War (1200 B.C.E.
when did Sparta began to extend control? during eighth and seventh centuries B.C.E.
Sparta Reduced the neighboring peoples to semi-free servants and Maintained domination by a powerful military machine
Spartan society Discouraged social distinction and Distinction was drawn by prowess
to who was open the citizenship to? to free adult males, not to foreigners, slaves, and women
Athenian society Maritime trade brought about prosperity to Attica, the region of Athens Aristocratic landowners were primary beneficiaries Class tension became intensified in the sixth century B.C.E.
Pericles (ca. 443-429 B.C.E.) most popular democratic leader of Athens
how many colonies did greeks founded? more than four hundred colonies
What were the benefits of the colonies ? Facilitated trade among Mediterranean lands and people Spread of Greek language and cultural traditions Stimulated development of surrounding areas
The Persian War (500-479 B.C.E.) Greek cities on Ionian coast revolted against Persia, 500 B.C.E. Battle of Marathon, 490 B.C.E., is decisive victory for Athens Xerxes tried again to seize Athens; his navy lost battle of Salamis (480 .) Persian army retreated back to Anatolia (479 .)
The Delian League Military and financial alliance among Greek poleis against Persian threat, When Persian threat subsided, poleis, other than Athens, no longer wanted to make contribution
The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.E.) Tensions led to two armed camps, under leadership of Athens and Sparta
who brought Greece under control? Philip of Macedon
Alexander of Macedon he succeeds Philip at age twenty and begins conquests
who controlled Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Invaded Persian homeland and burned Persepolis, Crossed Indus River and army refused to go farther and Died in 323 B.C.E. at age of thirty-three Alexander of Macedon
what were the Hellenistic Empires? Antigonid, Ptolemaic, Seleucid
Antigonid empire: Greece and Macedon Continuous tension between the Antigonid rulers and Greek cities Economy of Athens and Corinth flourished again through trade
The Ptolemaic empire: Egypt--the wealthiest The rulers did not interfere in Egyptian society Alexandria, capital at mouth of the Nile Cultural center: the famous Alexandria Museum and Alexandria Library
The Seleucid empire: largest, from Bactria to Anatolia Greek and Macedonian colonists flocked to Greek cities of the former Persia Colonists created a Mediterranean-style urban society Bactria withdrew from Seleucids and established independent Greek kingdom
how did Trade and commerce flourished? it flourished by resulting in population growth and more colonies
what was the production of the trade and commerce? olive oil and wine, in exchange for grain and other items Led to broader sense of Greek community
what become popular ? Panhellenic festivals (like Olympic Games)
what were the Greek society in Homer's works? Heroic warriors and outspoken wives in Homer's world Strong-willed human beings clashed constantly
Patriarchal society was the norm Women could not own landed property but could operate small businesses, Priestess was the only public position for women, Spartan women enjoyed higher status than women of other poleis
of what did Sappho wrote poems about? attraction to women
what were it the poems about? Instructed young women in music and literature at home, Critics charged her with homosexual activity (not acceptable for women)
Slavery people Worked as cultivators, domestic servants Educated or skilled slaves worked as craftsmen and business managers
What was the formation of Greek cultural traditions? a philosophy based on human reason
Socrates (470-399 B.C.E.)"An unexamined life is not worth living" Encouraged reflection on questions of ethics and morality Was condemned to death on charge of corrupting Athenian youths
who was Plato (430-347 B.C.E.)? A zealous disciple of Socrates
What does it mean to be in socrates? The theory of Forms or Ideas--world of ideal qualities This world is imperfect reflection of world of Forms His Republic expressed the ideal of philosophical kings
Who was Plato's student? Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.)
Whats the Legacy of Greek philosophy? Intellectual authorities for European philosophers until seventeenth century Intellectual inspiration for Christian and Islamic theologians
what were the Greek deities? Zeus and scores of subordinate deities
Drama was performed at annual theatrical festivals Great tragedians explored the possibilities and limitations of human action Comic drama took delight in lampooning the public figures
The Hellenistic philosophers search for personal tranquility
Epicureans identified pleasure as the greatest good
Skeptics doubted certainty of knowledge, sought equanimity
Stoics taught individuals duty to aid others and lead virtuous lives
Religions of salvation spread through trade routes Mystery religions promised eternal bliss for believers; like Cult of Osiris Speculation about a single, universal god emerged
Created by: StephanieJ3102