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Science Ch. 3

A Beka Academy

liver the body's largest internal organ
insulin and glucagon hormones secreted by the islets of Lagerhans that regulate sugar levels throughout the body
fracture a break or crack in a bone
simple fracture a crack or break in a bone that does not cause the bone to pierce the skin's surface
ball-and-socket joints movable joints which allow movement in many directions, found in your shoulders and hips
pivot joints movable joints which allow turning movements, such as turning your head and turning your hands over
joint the place where two or more bones meet
cartilage a smooth tissue covering the ends of bones in a movable joint, allowing them to move easily
ligaments strong, tough tissues that connect bones to other bones in movable joints
hinge joints movable joints which allow back-and-forth movement similar to hinges on a door; examples are knee, elbow, finger, and toe joints
compound fracture a break in a bone so severe that the bone actually breaks through the skin's surface
skeletal muscle muscle attached to the bones of the skeleton that can be controlled with the conscious mind; also called voluntary muscle
central nervous system one of the two major divisions of the nervous system, consisting of the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system one of the two major divisions of the nervous system, composed of the nerves and nerve tissues
nerves bundles of fibers that connect the central nervous system with the rest of the body
nervous system the body system designed to coordinate the activities of your body, made up of two major divisions
involuntary muscle muscle in organs and passageways of body systems that is not controlled with the conscious mind; not part of the muscular system
tendons tough, cord-like tissue attaching skeletal muscles to the bones
origin the point at which a skeletal muscle is anchored to a relatively immovable part, such as a bone
insertion the point at which a skeletal muscle is attached to a movable part of the body, such as another bone or the skin
muscular system the body system composed of over 600 muscles; makes up about half the body's weight
pelvis the hipbones, which connect the legs to the vertebral column; also protects the organs of the urinary and reproductive systems
flat bones bones, such as ribs, which protect vital organs
irregular bones any bone which cannot be classified as a long, short, or flat bone
phalanges the long bones of the fingers and toes
vertebrae irregular bones of the vertebral column
short bones bones which are roughly cube shaped; most are in the wrists and ankles
femur the long bone in the thigh
marrow the soft, fatty tissue in the porous center of a long bone
long bones bones which are longer than they are wide, with enlarged ends; support your body's weight and work with your muscles to provide movement
humerus the long bone in the upper arm
axial skeleton the division of the skeleton that includes the 80 bones of the head, spine, and ribs
cranium the part of the skull made up of 8 flat bones fused together which protects the brain
sternum the breastbone, to which the top ten pairs of ribs connect
appendicular skeleton the 126-bone division of the skeleton that includes the bones of the appendages and the bones that connect them to the axial skeleton
clavicles the collarbones
scapulas the shoulder blades
sacrum & coccyx the two bones formed by the fused 9 lowest vertebrae in adults
vertebral column the backbone, consisting of 33 vertebrae
maxillary bones the two bones which form the upper jawbone
mandible the lower jawbone, the only movable bone in the skull
sinuses hollow spaces that help your voice resonate and lighten your skull
impulses electrochemical messages transmitted by the nerves
cerebrum the largest part of the brain, divided into two halves called hemispheres; controls thought and reason
epithelial muscle connective nerve 4 basic types of tissue in the body
epithelial tissue the tissue made of cells that fit tightly together to form protective barriers
muscle tissue the tissue type that provides motion
skeletal muscle tissue the tissue type which composes the muscles that can be voluntarily controlled
sperm the male reproductive cells
eggs the female reproductive cells
pineal gland the gland located in the center of the brain that serves as a clock to control waking and sleeping
reproductive system the body system responsible for producing new human beings
gonads the main organs of the reproductive system; the two ovaries in women and the two testes in men
smooth muscle tissue the tissue type which controls the diameter of the blood vessels, propels food along the digestive tract, and adjusts the size of the pupils in the eyes
cardiac muscle tissue the tissue type which is striated like skeletal muscle tissue and is found only in your heart
uterus a mother's womb
placenta a structure that attaches a developing baby to the wall of the uterus and allows exchanges between the baby's blood and the mother's blood
umbilical cord a structure containing three blood vessels that connects a developing baby to the placenta and uterus
umbilicus the navel; the place where the umbilical cord is attached to a baby
conception, or fertilization the point in time when a human being's life begins; the union between the egg cell and the sperm cell
all of them the cells necessary for the long-term health of the body
connective tissue the tissue type which fulfills the purpose of linking parts of the body together
nerve tissue the tissue type which is found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; conducts impulses to and from all parts of the body
cells the smallest part of the body that can be said to be alive
diabetes mellitus a disease caused either when not enough insulin is produced or when the body does not respond properly to the insulin that is produced
islets of Lagerhans clusters of endocrine glands in the pancreas which secrete the hormones insulin and glucagon
spinal cord the bundle of nerve fibers inside the vertebral column which transmits impulses from the brain to the peripheral nervous system; controls simple reflexes such as withdrawing from pain
sensory nerve fiber transmits information to the brain and spinal cord
motor nerve fiber transmits messages from the central nervous system to the muscles and other organs
sensory receptors special nerve endings that detect conditions around you
brain stem the part of the brain that connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord; responsible for the body's automatic activities such as digestion, heartbeat, breathing, and regulating body temperature
cerebellum a wrinkled, fist-sized mass at the back of the brain below the cerebrum; responsible for balance and skeletal muscle coordination
skeletal system the body system which supports your body and gives it shape, protects vital structures, provides attachments for many of your body's muscles, and serves as a storage reservoir for your body's calcium
left hemisphere the half of the cerebrum which controls the right half of the body and functions in language, mathematics, science, and logic
right hemisphere the half of the cerebrum which controls the left half of the body and functions in intuition, imagination, and artistic and musical awareness
endocrine system the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate many important bodily functions
hormones often called "chemical messengers"; chemical substances responsible for controlling growth, digestion, and many other automatic activities of the body; each type stimulates or hinders the activities of only one specific organ or group of organs
parathyroid glands glands which work with the thyroid gland to control the amount of calcium in the blood
adrenal glands the "emergency glands" which produce the hormone responsible for the "fight or flight" response to stress
epinephrine the hormone, commonly known as adrenaline, produced by the adrenal glands; puts the body on high alert to deal with emergencies
thyroxine a hormone which regulates the body's metabolism
Created by: Mariah14