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SS Foundation Voc

Social Studies Foundational Vocabulary

ethnic group A cultural community of people with common ancestry, often sharing common religion, language, and traditions. An ethnic group is a group of people who share cultural ideas and beliefs that have been a part of their community for generations
religious group Shares a belief system in god or gods, with a specific set of rituals and literature. People from different ethnic groups may share the same religion, though they may be from very different cultures.
literacy rate The percentage of people that can read and write
standard of living 1. the necessities, and luxuries enjoyed or aspired to by an individual or group 2. Standard of Living is the minimum of necessities, comforts, or luxuries held essential to person or group 3. a level of subsistence or material welfare of a community
unitary A form of government in which the central government decides which power to grant to local governments. Local governments have important powers, but these powers are not clearly defined by the country’s constitution.
confederation A voluntary association of states in which individual states hold more power than the central government. States agree to join together to form a central government, but each state retains the power to act independently.
federal system A form of government in which power is shared more evenly between the central government and the government of states or provinces
autocratic government The power lies in the hands of a single figure
democratic government A form of government that relies on active citizen participation; voters choose their own leaders through elections
oligarchic government A system in which an un-elected powerful group uses its hold over the government to enrich itself and deny power to the citizens.
parliamentary system A form of government in which the executive branch is not as independent of the legislative branch as it is in a presidential democracy. The leader of the government is usually the prime minister.
presidential system The executive branch is headed by the president, while the legislative branch is headed by Congress. The president is independent of Congress.
budget A plan for spending and saving money
economy The way in which people meet their needs through the production, distribution, and use of goods and services.
command economy An economic system in which the central government decides which goods and services are needed and how they will be produced
market economy An economic system managed by the people, based on supply and demand
tariffs A tax on imports
import quotas A type of trade barrier that limits the number of goods that can be imported from a certain country
embargo A ban on trade with a certain country
human capital The value of people’s work
capital Any goods that are used that are used to produce other good
entrepreneur A person who takes the risk of organizing and running a new business
natural resources Resources are all the land, forests, energy sources and minerals existing naturally in a place that can be used by people.
gross domestic product (GDP) The total value of all the goods and services produced by a country each year.
export A product a country send s to another country
import A product a country buys from another country
mixed economy A system in which people are free to control the means of production. Individuals and businesses decide what to produce, how to produce it, and how much it should cost. The government also regulates the economy.
Created by: crawfka