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Med Term Ch 2

Dooley's Med Term Ch. 2

anatomy study of the structure of the body
physiology study of the function of the structures of the body
body planes divide the body into sections for descriptive purposes
midsagittal plane divides the body into equal right & left halves
sagittal plane divides the body into unequal right & left portions
coronal plane divides th body into anterior and posterior portions
horizontal plane divides the body into upper and lower sections
transverse plane divides the body into upper & lower portions
superior upper portion, above, toward the head
inferior lower portion, below, toward the feet
cephalic toward the head
anterior toward the front
ventral front
posterior toward the back
dorsal back
midline imaginary line down the middle of the body
proximal situated nearest the midline
distal situated farthest from the midline
medial toward the midline
lateral toward the side
caudal toward the lower part of the body; tail
cranial referring to the skull
spinal referring to the spine
thoracic pertaining to the chest
abdominal pertaining to the abdomen
pelvic pertaining to the pelvis
hypo below, lower
chondr/o pertaining to the ribs
epi- above
-ic referring to
lumbar referring to the lower back
umbilical pertaining to the navel or 'belly button'
inguinal referring to the groin area
cytology study of the formation, structure, & function of cells
genes functional units of heredity
genetics srudy of how genes are transferred from parents to children
genetic disorder disease or condition caused by defective genes
congenital disorder abnormal condition that exists at birth that may be caused by developmental disorder before birht, prenatal influences, premature birth, or birth injuries
anomaly a deviation from what is considered normal
prenatl influences the mother's health and the care she recieves before delivery
histology study of structure, composition, function of tissues
stem cells precursor cells
epithelial tissues form protective covering for internal and external surfaces
connective tissue supports & connects organs and other tisues
muscle tissue contracts and relaxes to create movement
nerve tissue reactes to stimuli and conducts impulses
aplasia lack of development of tissue or organ
hyperplasia abnormal increase in formation of cells or tissue
hypoplasia abnormal decrease in the formation of cells or tissue
dysplasia abnormal development or growth of cells (usually means bad)
anaplasia change in structure of cells and their orientation to each other as in cancer
exocrine glands secrete chemical substance through ducts
endocrine glands secrete chemical substances directly into blood stream
adenoma tumor of a gland
adenitis inflammation of a gland
adenomalcia abnormal softening of a gland
adenectomy surgical removal of a gland
adenosclerosis abnormal hardening of a gland
pathology study of the structure and functional changes caused by disease
laparoscopy visual exam of the interior of the abdomen with the use of a laparoscope
peritoneum membrane that lines the abdomenial cavity, protects and supports the organs within the abdomen
etiology cause of a diease; study of the cause of disease
postmortem after death
autopsy examination of a body after death (post mortem)to determine the cause of death
communicable disease AKA contagious disease; transmitted from one person to another by direct contact or indirectly through contaminated objects
contaminated possible prescence of an infectious agent
bloodborne transmission infectious agent passed to another by expossure to infected blood
sexually transmitted disease AKA: STDs or venereal disease; person to person contact or contact with infected lesions
airborne transmission infectious agent is passed to another through respiratory dropletsfrom a cough or sneeze
foodborne transmission caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water; AKA fecal/oral transmission
infectious disease illness caused by a pathogenic organism
idiopathic disorder an illness with no known cause
functional disorder no detectable physical signs that explain the symptoms
iatrogenic disorder a problem caused by a medical treatment
organic disorder physical changes that expalin the symptoms being experienced by the patient
nosocomial infection infection acquired in a hospital that was not present on admission but appears within 72 hours or more after hospitalization
epidemiologist studies outbreaks of diseasewithin a population
endemic an illness or disease that is always present within a population
epidemic sudden widespread outbreak of an illness or disease within a population
pandemic a worldwide outbreak of a disease
Created by: dgdooley