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Chabner Chpt 2

Pronunciation of Terms

Abdomen Area of the body between the body between the chest and pelvis region.
Abdominal cavity Area of the body between the chest and pelvis (hip region).
Adipose Pertaining to fat.
Anabolism Process of building up or synthesizing substances (such as proteins) in a cell.
Anterior Pertaining to the front of a structure.
Cartilage Elastic, connective tissue found at joints, within the trachea and larynx, and connected to ribs, nose, and ear.
Catabolism Cellular process of breaking down of a complex substance into simple compounds. Energy is released to do the work of the cell.
Caudad Toward the tail or end of the body.
Caudal Pertaining to the tail, or to the lower portion of the body; also means away from the head or below another structure.
Cell membrane Thin and delicate structure surrounding a cell; allows materials to pass in and out.
Cephalad Toward the head, or the upper portion of the body or a structure.
Cephalic Pertaining to the head; also means above another structure.
Cervical Pertaining to the neck of the body or lower neck-line portion of the uterus.
Chondroma Tumor (benign) of cartilage.
Chondrosarcoma Malignant, cancerous tumor of cartilage.
Chromosome Threadlike structure within the nucleus of a cell; contains genetic material (DNA).
Coccygeal Pertaining to the tailbone or coccyx.
Coccyx Tailbone at the end of the spinal or vetebral column.
Cranial cavity Pertaining to the space within the skull containing the brain and pituitary gland.
Craniotomy Incision of the skull.
Cytoplasm All of the substance of a cell other than the nucleus.
Deep Away from the surface of the body or an organ.
Diaphragm Muscular wall separating the chest and abdomen.
Disk (disc) Circular platelike structure composed of cartilage.
Distal Pertaining to far from the beginning of a structure.
Dorsal Pertaining to the back, or posterior portion of the body.
Endoplasmic reticulum Network of canals within the cytoplasm of the cell.
Epigastric region The upper middle region of the abdomen, between the right and left hypochondriac regions.
Epithelial cells Cells arranged in layers and covering or lining a surface of the body.
Frontal plane A vertical plane passing through the body and dividing it into the front and back portions; coronal plane.
Genes Segments of DNA that determine hereditary characteristics.
Histology Study of tissues.
Hypochondriac region An upper abdominal area on either side of the epigastric (middle) region beneath the cartilage of the lower ribs.
Hypogastric Lower middle region of the abdomen.
Iliac Pertaining to the ilium, which is the right or left upper most portion of the hipbone.
Inguinal region Lowermost region of the abdomen on either side of the hypogastric region.
Intervertebral Pertaining to between the vertebrae (backbones).
Karyotype Classification of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell determined by a photograph taken during cell division.
Larynx The voice box.
Lateral Pertaining to the side.
Lumbar region One of two middle lateral regions on either side of the umbilical region (near the naval).
Lumbosacral Pertaining to the lumbar and sacral regions of the back.
Medial Pertaining to the middle or midline of the body.
Mediastinum Part of the thoracic (chest) cavity between the lungs.
Metabolism Chemical processes that occur in cells; including catabolism (breaking down process) and anabolism (building up process).
Mitochondria Rod-like, threadlike or granular structures in a cell; site of catabolism and release of energy.
Nucleic Pertaining to the nucleus.
Nucleus Central, controlling structure in a cell; contains chromosomes with DNA (genetic material).
Pelvic cavity Pertaining to the space surrounded by the bone of the hip region.
Peritoneum Membrane surrounding the organs in the abdomen.
Pharynx The throat.
Pituitary gland Endocrine gland at the base of the brain; secretes many hormones that control growth and organs including the thyroid, adrenal and sex glands (ovaries and testes).
Pleura A delicate membrane surrounding each lung and divided into two layers.
Pleural cavity Space between the layers of the pleura in the chest.
Posterior Pertaining to the back or dorsal side of the body or structure.
Prone Lying in a horizontal position with face downward.
Proximal Pertaining to a location near the point of attachment or beginning of an organ.
Sacral Pertaining to the sacrum.
Sacrum Large, triangular bone is at the dorsal part the pelvis, wedged between the two ilia or hipbones.
Sagittal plane Vertical plane that divides the body into a right and left portion.
Sarcoma Tumor of flesh tissue such as bone, fat, muscle or cartilage.
Spinal cavity Space surrounded by the backbones or spine.
Spinal cord The nervous tissue within the spinal cavity.
Spinal column Series of backbones (vertebrae) located on the posterior side of the body.
Superficial Pertaining to or the surface of the body.
Supine Lying horizontally on the back with face upward.
Thoracic cavity The space in the chest surrounded by the ribs, spinal column, breastbone, diaphragm, and chest wall muscles.
Thoracotomy Incision of the chest.
Thyroid gland Endocrine gland in the neck; secretes the hormone thyroxine (Ty).
Trachea Windpipe; tube leading from the larynx (voice box) to the bronchial tubes.
Tracheal Pertaining to the trachea.
Transverse plane Horizontal plane that divides the body into upper and lower portions.
Umbilical region Region in the area of the navel or umbilicus.
Ureter One of two tubes carrying urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Urethra Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
Uterus Muscular organ in a female that nourishes the developing embryo during pregnancy; womb.
Ventral Pertaining to the front or anterior of the body.
Vertebra Backbone.
Vertebrae Two or more backbones.
Vertebral Pertaining to backbones.
Viscera Internal organs.
Visceral Pertaining to internal organs.
Created by: HSchantz