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Sociology Intro 1

Intro to Soc. - Ch 1 - The Sociological Perspective

Symbolic Interaction The interaction that takes place between people or with an object through symbols.
Survey A method of systematically obtaining standardized information about characteristics of a population or the way people think or behave, using interviews or questionnaires.
Correlation A relationship between variables that occurs regularly.
Interview The questioning of a research subject in order to obtain desired information.
Latent Function Unintended or unconscious functions or consequences
Macrosociology Investigation which concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations.
Manifest Function A consequence or function that is obvious, intended or conscious.
Microsociology Investigation which stresses the study of small groups and often uses laboratory experimental studies.
Natural Sciences Disciplines that study physical (chemistry, physics, geology, astronomy) or biological (biology, zoology) phenomena.
Bias The often unconscious tendency to interpret information according to one's own values.
Case Study A complete and detailed record of an event, group or social process.
Conflict Perspective A sociological approach that focuses on tension, competition and change amongst groups as a permanent feature of society.
Content Analysis The systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale.
Ideal Type A construct or model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases may be evaluated.
Independent Variable The variable in a causal relationship which influences or causes a second variable.
Interactionist Perspective A sociological approach that focuses on the way people act toward, respond to and influence one another.
Operational Definition A definition that states a variable in terms that can be measured.
Participant Observation A method in which the researcher becomes directly involved in the behavior under study.
Questionnaire A research instrument consisting of a series of questions employed to obtain desired information from a research subject.
Social Psychology The study of how personality and behavior are influenced by the social context.
Sociological Imagination An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society.
Sociology The scientific study of human groups and social behavior.
Spurious Correlation A relationship between variables that is merely coincidental and not indicative of a causal relationship.
Structure A set of interrelated components which contribute to the maintenance of a system.
Social Sciences Disciplines that study various aspects of human behavior, such as sociology, psychology, anthropology, political science and economics.
Hypothesis A speculative statement about the relationship between variables.
Hawthorne Effect The unintended influence that observers or experiments themselves can have on their subjects.
Random Sample A sample for which every member of the population under study has the same chance of being selected.
Respondent A research subject who participates in a survey.
Research Design A detailed plan for the scientific collection and analysis of data.
Sample A small number of individuals selected as research subjects, drawn from a larger population.
Science A body of knowledge obtained by logical, systematic methods of study.
Scientific Method A systematic, organized series of seven steps that ensure maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem or hypothesis.
Secondary Analysis A variety of research techniques that make use of publicly accessible information and data.
Nonverbal Communication The sending of messages through the use of body language, facial expressions and gestures.
Objectivity Interpretation that eliminates the influence of personal values.
Value Judgement An opinion based on personal values or biases.
Cultural Anthropology The study of the ways of life of other people, particularly small-scale, traditional societies.
Dependent Variable The variable in a causal relationship that is affected by another variable.
Detached Observation A method in which the researcher remains as aloof as possible.
Dramaturgical Approach A view of social interaction popularized by Erving Goffman, under which people are examined as if they were theatrical performers.
Dysfunction A negative element or process that may disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability.
Experiment A method for studying the relationships between variables under carefully controlled conditions.
Experimental Group Subjects in an experiment who are exposed to an independent variable by a researcher.
Function A positive consequence for a whole social system.
Theory A statement that organizes a set of concepts in a meaningful way by explaining the relationship among them.
Theoretical Perspective A broad assumption about society and social behavior that provides a point of view for the study of specific problems.
Value Neutrality Max Weber's term for the absence of biases or personal values in the interpretation of data.
Controls Ways of excluding the possibility that some other factors might be influencing the relationship between research variables.
Control Group Subjects in an experiment who are exposed to all experimental conditions except the independent variable.
Variable A measurable trait or characteristic that can change or differ.
Verstehen The German word for "understanding" or "insight"- used by Max Weber to stress the need for sociologists to take into account people's emotions, thoughts, beliefs and attitudes.
Functionalist Perspective A sociological approach that focuses on the way various parts of society have functions that maintain its stability.
Generalization Statements that apply not just to a specific case, but to most cases of the same type.
Observation A research technique in which an investigator collects information through direct participation and/or observation of a group/tribe/community.
Symbol Anything that can meaningfully represent something else.
Created by: jpkaylynn