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SOCI 2013 Exam 2

Chapter 3,4,&5

What is Prejudice and discrimination against people on the basis of age, particularly against older person? Ageism
Who are agents of Socialization? The persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society
What is the process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future roles? Anticipatory socialization
What is Ego? The rational, reality-oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on the innate pleasure-seeking drives of the Id.
Which is an aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female or male in a specific group or society? Gender Socialization
Generalized Other is defined as. . . the term for the child’s awareness of the demands and expectations of the society as a whole or of the child’s subculture.
The lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society is . . . Socialization
What is Cooley's "looking-glass self?" When a person's sense of self is derived from his or her perception perception of how others view him or her.
The theory that children FIRST develop the Id, THEN the Ego, and LASTLY the superego, describes what? Freud's psychoanalytic perspective
What is Piaget's cognitive development? When children go through four stages of cognitive development, going from understanding only through sensory contact to engaging in highly abstract thought.
The theory that people go through three stages of moral development, from avoidance of unwanted consequences to viewing morality based on human rights describes what? Kohlberg's stages of moral development
Gilligan: gender and moral development believes what? The idea that women go through stages of moral development from personal wants to the greatest good for themselves and others.
In the preparatory stage, children imitate the people around them. In the play stage, children pretend to take the roles of specific people. In the game stage, children learn the demands and expectations of roles. What do these 3 stages describe? Mead's three stages of self-development.
Who is the MOST important agent of socialization in ALL societies? Family
What is a peer group? A group of people who are linked by common interest, equal social positions, and similar age.
Which is a large-scale organization that uses print or electronic means to communicate with large numbers of people? Mass Media
Define Gender Socialization. The aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female or male in a specific group or society.
Define Racial Socialization. The aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of one's racial or ethnic status.
Define Anticipatory Socialization. The process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future roles.
Who acts as one of the primary elements of gender socialization? Family
True or False: The most important aspects of racial identity and attitudes toward other racial-ethnic groups are passed down in families from generation to generation. True
True of False: Friends are the most important agents of socialization in all societies. False
True of False: Socialization IS a lifelong process. True
Which is anticipatory socialization often associated with? Adolescence
What is one of the major differences between child socialization and adult socialization? The degree of freedom of choice
Life activity, material security, physical health and functional status, cognitive efficacy, and social resources are the 5 keys to what? Aging well
The "young-old," the "old-old," and the "oldest-old," describe the 3 categories of what? Late adulthood
What is social devaluation? A situation in which a person or group is considered to have less social value than other individuals or groups.
True of False: Negative images contribute to the view that MEN are "old" 10 or 15 years SOONER than WOMEN? False
The process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, and behaviors from those in one's background and experience is. . . Resocialization
What is total institution? Erving Goffman's term for a place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and come under the control of the officials who run the institution.
What is the systematic study of how biology affects social behavior? Sociobiology
True or False: Professors are the primary agents of socialization for college students. False
True of False: Humans rely MORE HEAVILY on social learning than do monkeys. True
What is child neglect? When children's basic needs are not met, regardless of cause.
According to Freud, how many stages are there to human development? 3
What is the Id? Freud's term for the component of personality that includes all of the individual's basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratification.
What is the superego? Freud's term for the conscience, consisting of the moral and ethical aspects of personality.
What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development? Sensorimotor stage, Preoperational stage, Concrete operational stage, and Formal operational stage
What are Kohlberg's 3 stages of cognitive reasoning? Preconventional level, Conventional level, Postconventional level
What is the totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves? Self-concept
What is self-identity? Our perception about what kind of person we are
Which is the process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person in order to understand the world from that person's point of view. Role-taking
Who are significant others? Those persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and who are most important in the development of the self.
True or False: Socialization is the essential link between the individual and society. True
True or False: Socialization helps us to learn how to communicate with other people. True
True or False: Socialization is MOST crucial during childhood. True
What is social interaction? The process by which people act toward or respond to other people; the foundation for all relationships and groups in society.
What is social structure? The stable pattern of social relationships that exist within a particular group or society.
Define status. A socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties.
What is a status set? All the statuses that a person occupies at a give time.
What is ascribed status? A social position conferred at birth or received involuntarily later in life based on attributed over which the individual has little or no control, such as race/ethnicity, age, or gender.
What is achieved status? A social position that a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort.
What is master status? The most important status that a person occupies.
True or false: MASTER STATUS is the MOST important status that a person occupies. True.
What is a status symbol? A material sign that informs others of a person's specific status.
Define role. A set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status.
What is role expectation? A group's or society's definition of the way that a specific role ought to be played.
What is role performance? How a person actually plays a role.
What is role conflict? A situation in which incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time.
What is role strain? A condition that occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies.
What is role exit? A situation in which people disengage from social roles that have been central to their self identity.
What is a social group? A group that consists of two or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity and a feeling of interdependence.
What is a primary group? A term from a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time.
Who developed the term 'primary group?' Charles Horton Cooley
What is a secondary group? A larger. more specialized group in which members engage in more-impersonal, goal-oriented relationships from a limited period of time.
What is a formal organization? A highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals.
What is a social institution? A set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet it basic social needs.
Describe the division of labor. This is how the various tasks of a society are divided up and performed.
Explain mechanical solidarity. This is Emile Durkhein's term for the social cohesion in preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds.
What is organic solidarity? This is Emile Durkhein's term for the social cohesion found in industrial societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence.
What is Gemeinschaft? A traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on inter-generational stability.
What is Gesellschaft? A large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus values.
What is an industrial society? A society based on technology that mechanizes production.
What is a postindustrial society? A society in which technology supports a service- and information-based economy.
What is the social construction of reality? The process by which our perception of reality is shaped largely by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience.
What is self-fulfilling prophecy? The situation in which a false belief or prediction produces behavior that makes the originally false belief come true.
Define ethnomethodology. This is the study of the commonsense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they find themselves.
What is dramaturgical analysis? This is the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation.
What is impression management? Erving Goffman's term for people's efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests or image.
Define face-saving behavior. Erving Goffman's term for the strtegiees we use to rescue our performance when we experience a potential or actual loss of face.
What is nonverbal communication? The transfer of information between persons without the use of speech.
What is personal space? The immediate are surrounding a person that the person claims as private.
Define aggregate. A collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common.
Define category. a number of people who may never have met one another but share a similar characteristic, such as education level, age, race, or gender.
What is an ingroup? A group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity.
What is an outgroup? A group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility.
What is a reference group? A group that strongly influences a person's behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member.
What is a small group? A collectively small enough group for all members to be acquainted with one another and to interact simultaneously.
Define dyad. A group composed of two members.
Define triad. A group composed of three members.
What is instrumental leadership? goal- or task- oriented leadership.
What is expressive leadership? An approach to leadership that provides emotional support for members.
What is an authoritarian leader? A person who makes all major group decisions and assigns tasks to members.
What is a democratic leader? A leader who encourages group discussion and decision making through consensus building.
What is a laissez-faire leader? A leader who is only minimally involved in decision making and who encourages group members to make their own decisions.
Define conformity. The process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture, or other group.
Define groupthink. The process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise.
Define bureaucracy. An organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonality in personnel matters.
Define rationality. The process by which traditional methods of social organization, characterized by informality and spontaneity, are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules and procedures.
Define ideal type. An abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon.
Define informal side of a bureaucracy. Those aspects of participants' day-to-day activities and interactions that ignore, bypass, or do not correspond with the official rules and procedures of the bureaucracy.
What is goal displacement? A proceess that occurs in organizations when the rules become an end in themselves rather than a means to an end, and organizational survival becomes more important than achievement of goals.
Define bureaucratic personality. A psychological construct that describes those workers who are more concerned with following correct procedures than they are with getting the job done correctly.
Iron law of oligarchy is: The tendency of bureaucracies to be ruled by a few people.
Created by: Razorbacks