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L21-39 KeyTerms&Pple

Umayyads a dynasty that ruled for 90 years
Berbers people that lived in Northern Africa that converted to Islam and helped the empire move forward
Visigoths a catholic member of the Goths
Charles Martel Attacked the Muslims with his army of Franks
Franks French
jizya a head tax Christians and Jews had to pay
Talmud the collection of Jewish law and tradition
bureaucracy many different departments managed by workers appointed by the caliph or his representatives
zakat 2.5 percent charity tax paid by Muslims
emir governors appointed directly by the caliph
rabbi a Jewish teacher
synagogue a Jewish temple
Torah the Jewish Bible
Arabic the Arab language
Abd al Malik a Muslim caliph that helped shape an influential Muslim culture: UMAYYAD CALIPH
Abd al Rahman founder of Umayyad Dynasty in Cordoba
Abbasids family able to gain control of the Muslim Empire in the east
Baghdad the new capital of the Muslim Empire
corriander a plant used for medicinal powers
calligraphy the art of fine handwriting; such as that practiced in Muslim art and writing
Tigris and Euphrates rivers around Baghdad
algebra a type of mathematics named after one of al Khwarizmi's books al jabr
House of Wisdom a school in Baghdad
Mesopotamia a country between two rivers (Tigris & Euphrates) that held the new Muslim capital
factions opposing groups
arabesque floral designs
Caliph al Ma'mun founded the "House of Wisdom"
Avicenna Ibn Sina: a leading Abbasid figure of medicine
Turks people from Central Asia
ar-Razi a Persian-born physician that wrote the first accurate description of smallpox and measels
Seljuk a warrior
Abu Jafar al Mansur moved the capital of the Muslim Empire from Damascus to Baghdad
al Khwarizmi famous Abbasid mathematician
Fatimids the descendants of Muhammad's daughter Fatima
Cordoba ancient Roman City
Ladino the Saphardic language
Great Mosque The third largest mosque in the world
Aragon and Castille the combined kingdoms of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
Sephardic a Jewish-Spanish culture
legacy gift
Reconquest when Christians took over part of Spain
Abd al Rahman III The first Umayyad ruler of Spain
Abbas ibn Firnas the first visiting scholar that came to teach music but began to explore the mechanics of flight
Moses Maimomides a famous writer of Muslim Spain
Ferdinand and Isabella the people that reconquered Spain and expelled Jews
Sahara a desert in North Africa
Niger River a river in W Africa, rising in S Guinea, flowing NE through Mali, and then SE through Nigeria into the Gulf of Guinea
savanna a region of grasslands containing scattered trees and vegetation
Jenne-jeno a city located in the country of Mali
sahel a region known as "shore of the desert"
Nok a city in present day Nigeria; The first West Africans to make iron
Senegal River helped communication and transport in Ghana
Ghana Wangara a part of Ghana with fields of gold
Mali a country in West Africa
Koumbi Maghreb a region ruled by the Berbers
matrilineal throne given to nephew from sister
patrilineal the throne given from father to son
Soninke Mandinke people who descend from the Bafour and are closely related to the Imraguen of Mauritania
Almoravids were a Berber dynasty of Morocco
Sanhaja Tuareg one of the largest Berber tribal confederations of the Maghreb
Sumanguru a king of Ghana, Africa
griot an African storyteller
Timbuktu a city in Africa; another trade center
Niana Mali's capital
Gao a city along the Niger River, the capital of the new Songhai Empire
Sundiata a king of Mali, Africa
Mansa Musa Mali's greatest ruler
Ibn Battuta a north-African writer
Askia Muhammad overthrew Sunni Ali's son and became king of the Songhai Empire, named Islam state religion
Songhai a new empire out of Mali ruled by Sunni Ali
Sunni Ali the first king of the Songhai Empire
Judar Pasha Muslim Spaniard that took people into battle to conquer Songhai
millet a wheat like grain
diviners helped people interact with gods; communicated with the spirit world; had healing powers
clan a group of close-knit and interrelated families
sorghum a kind of grain; Sorghum is a genus of plants in the grass family
kinship blood relationship
cassava the starchy tuberous root of a tropical tree, used as food in tropical countries but requiring careful preparation to remove traces of cyanide from the flesh.
indigenous native
ancestor worship a way to honor relatives that they believe spirits are believed to have the power to intervene in the affairs of the living.
manioc another term for cassava.
ethnolinguistics the study of various people through their languages
anopheles mosquito causes malaria breeds in areas with standing water
tsetse fly flies that could infect both humans and cattle with a fatal illness.
migrated Bantu people from a village in Africa that moved to resettle
Khoikhoi a non-Bantu people whose language sounds like a series of clicks; herd cattle
San a non-Bantu people whose language sounds like a series of clicks; forced out of normal hunting grounds
Created by: aaldea