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Chapter 4

Vocab, P.I.R.A.T.E.S, Chronology Ch.4 Per.1 (3500-500 B.C.E)

CITADEL a fortress, typically on high ground, protecting or dominating a city
HARAPPAN(1) The Harappan lived in a village in Pakistan...site of successive cities of the Indus valley civilization -lived in a Bronze Age and their culture flourished in the Indus valley; first early civilization, circa 2600 BCE
VENERATED To regard with respect
PANTHEON An ideology
ARYANS(3) Herding people; spoke an Indo-European language; settled into Indus Valley in large numbers, 2600 B.C.E
RIG VEDA A collection of some 1,028 hymns dedicated to gods; complied between 1400 and 900 B.C.E.
INDRA A God; chief deity of Aryans
RAJA A leader of chiefdoms; governed in collaboration with a council of village elders
CASTE SYSTEM Determined the places that individuals and groups occupied in society; status
VARNAS The four castes in the Hindu caste system
BRAHMINS A priests
KSHATRIYAS Warriors and aristocrats
VAISHYAS Cultivators, artisans, and merchants
SHUDRAS Landless peasants and serfs
"LAW BOOK OF MANU" A work that dealt with proper moral behavior and social relationships, including sex and gender relationships
BRAHMAN Human beings that participate in a larger cosmic order and forms a small part of a universal soul (according to the Upanishads)
DOCTRINE A document with beliefs or set of beliefs
KARMA A cynical ideology designed to justify the social inequalities imposed by the caste system
DRAVIDIAN (2) The people that lived in the Indus Valley before the Aryans;native civilization(circa 2600 BCE)
Political (HARAPPAN) Unknown-unaccesible evidence
Interactions w/ environment (HARAPPAN) *Agricultural -cultivated wheat and barley *Indus valley *Industry = textiles *Irrigation Canals
Religion (HARAPPAN) *Polytheist nature gods; fertility goddess important *Priests in villages had high importance
Art & Architecture (HARAPPAN) *citadel *large granary *roads *temples
Technology (HARAPPAN) *ceramics *gate *steatite bead making
Economics (HARAPPAN) *trade -materials, cultivation
Society (HARAPPAN) *declined complex society of Dravidians
Political (ARYANS) *Clan system *King and local rulers(king had to protect his subjects, property, defense and maintenance of peace) *Many City states *Patriarchal/Patrilineal *Subjected women to control *Guidance from men *Spoke Sanskrit
Interactions w/ environment (ARYANS) *Nomadic people *Domesticated the horse *Herding *Cultivated (agriculture)
Religion (ARYANS) *Indian gods still worshipped *Aryans brought new gods and Scriptures (Vedas) *Ritual/ethics sacrifices -rewards/offerings to gods
Art & Architecture (ARYANS) *cities built from bricks *drain system *multileveled homes *iron tools
Technology (ARYANS) *iron tools -advanced weaponry *chariots *Bow and arrow
Economics (ARYANS) *Pastoral *Small self-sufficient agricultural communities *Iron Technology used for farm tools -increased food production (rice) *Weapons *Barter system (common)
Society (ARYANS) *Caste system *nomadic *arrogance ^4 varnans -bramins (priests) -kshstriyas (warriors and aristocrats -vaishyas (cultivators, artisans, merchants) -shudras (landless peasants and serfs)
Political (DRAVIDIAN) *City states *Governed by Priest Kings -democratic
Interactions w/ environment (DRAVIDIAN) *agriculture/cultivated native lands
Religion (DRAVIDIAN) *similar to aryans *reincarnation and circle of life
Art & Architecture (DRAVIDIAN) *Temples w/ pyramid shaped towers -constructed from sandstone
Technology (DRAVIDIAN) *iron tools -swords, spears, shields, bows, silambam
Economics (DRAVIDIAN) *rich culture society
Society (DRAVIDIAN) *4 varnans -bramins (priests) -kshstriyas (warriors and aristocrats -vaishyas (cultivators, artisans, merchants) -shudras (landless peasants and serfs)
Chronology 8000-7000 BCE -Beginnings of agriculture(South Asia)
Chronology 2500-2000B.C.E. -High point of Harappan society
Chronology 1900B.C.E. -Beginning of Harappan decline
Chronology 1500B.C.E. -Beginning of Aryan migration to India
Chronology 1500-500B.C.E. -Vedic age
Chronology 1400-900B.C.E. -Composition of the Rig Veda
Chronology 1000B.C.E. -Early Aryan migrations into the Ganges River valley
Chronology 1000B.C.E. -Emergence(varna distinctions)
Chronology 1000-500B.C.E. -Formation of regional kingdoms(northern India)
Chronology 800-400B.C.E. -Composition of the principal Upanishads
Chronology 750B.C.E. -Establishment of first Aryan cities in the Ganges valley
Chronology 500B.C.E -Early Aryan migrations to the Deccan Plateau
Created by: biannca2019